Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research
Phone number
+31 (0)222 36 9401
Ocean Systems (OCS)

Dr. Henko de Stigter


‘Mitigating the damage caused by deep-sea mining’

Marine geologist Henko de Stigter investigates the possible effects of harvesting “manganese nodules” from the deep sea. ‘So far, the harvest of nodules is not yet economically viable. Extensive research into this has been done for years. A lot of thought has been given to the legal aspects of harvesting valuable minerals from the “no man's land” on the ocean floor that is effectively nobody’s property, but we still know little about the ecological impact. Therefore, the time is right to investigate the potential impact of that harvest and to limit this impact wherever possible by adapting the harvesting equipment of the future.’

Cobblestones on the ocean floor

‘Several kilometres below the surface, manganese nodules are spread out over millions of square kilometres of the ocean floor. They lie on the surface like Belgian cobblestones and are therefore – relatively! – easy to harvest. The main component of the nodules, which are several centimetres in diameter on average, is manganese, but there is far more economic interest in the fraction of a percent of cobalt that the nodules also contain. Cobalt is already a valuable metal for the production of batteries, and with the emergence of batteries for transport and industry, that interest will only grow. Now, most cobalt comes from conflict areas such as the Democratic Republic of Congo.’

Potato harvester

‘In all probability, the harvesting equipment of the future will be a kind of potato harvester that travels over the ocean floor on caterpillar tracks. Considering the rate at which these nodules develop, the damage caused by this will literally take thousands or even millions of years to restore. Furthermore, the harvesting equipment will unavoidably cause a plume of sediment in an environment where such “dust clouds” normally never occur. These dust clouds will have an enormous impact on the deep-sea life that has to filter the ever-scarce food from the water and already lives on the edge of existence. With our research, we will have to establish how great that impact will be and what can be done to mitigate this damage. If, over the next few decades, it actually comes to the nodules being harvested, then that can best be done in a manner which causes as little damage as possible to the environment.’

Read more +

Linked news

Tuesday 14 May 2024
Final dust settles slowly in the deep sea
Unidentified Living Organisms between manganese nodules 'Dust clouds' at the bottom of the deep sea, that will be created by deep-sea mining activities, descend at a short distance for the biggest part. That is shown by PhD research of NIOZ marine…
Thursday 18 January 2024
IVN/NIOZ lezingen
In februari en maart zullen er vanuit NIOZ, in samenwerking met IVN (Instituut voor natuureducatie) verschillende lezingen worden gegeven over de diepzee. De lezingen zijn gratis en toegankelijk voor iedereen. Inschrijven via de QR-code bij dit…
Friday 07 July 2023
Dossier: deep sea
Two-thirds of the earth's surface consists of oceans and seas. The deep-sea is the largest biome on earth, making up 90% of the ocean’s volume. Below 200 meters depth it is dark, as hardly any sunlight can penetrate, the pressure increases and food…
Thursday 22 June 2023
Deep seabed mining stakeholders meet to discuss how to protect hydrothermal vents
Stakeholder event: Current developments on deep seabed mining and the use of area-based management tools to protect hydrothermal vents
Monday 03 April 2023
"It is too early for commercial deep-sea mining"
"Extracting manganese nodules or other valuable metals from the bottom of the oceans is still fraught with many uncertainties. It is therefore far too early to proceed with commercial deep-sea mining at this time." So says marine biologist Sabine…
Monday 21 March 2022
Deep sea mining might start soon, still research needed
If it's up to mining companies, deep sea mining had already started many years ago. The International Seabed Authority (ISA) council 27th assembly starts today. Under pressure of several countries mining regulations are discussed. Independent…
Thursday 11 November 2021
Oceans of Energy will build 1 MW offshore solar off the coast of Scheveningen
Scheveningen, The Netherlands; November 11, 2021 - Today Oceans of Energy and partners & observers announce the upscaling of the world's first offshore solar farm system 20 times and expand it to 1 MW (MegaWatt). In the coming years, the company…
Tuesday 06 April 2021
Assessing the Impacts of Nodule Mining on the Deep-Sea Environment
Scientists of the JPI Oceans project “MiningImpact” are embarking on a 6-week expedition to the Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone (CCZ) in the Pacific. Their goal is to carry out independent scientific monitoring of the test of a pre-prototype nodule…
Sunday 04 April 2021
NIOZ research on deep sea ecosystems and human impacts
The ecosystems of the deep sea are unique and very vulnerable. At the NIOZ, we have been investigating these ecosystems and man-made impacts on the functioning of these ecosystems for decades.
Friday 04 September 2020
Importance of science-based data in an exploration of deep-sea mining
The wrap-up of the ‘Blue Nodules’ project shows the importance of science-based data in the much-debated exploration of deep-sea mining. In this EU-funded project on deep-sea mining, scientific data supports engineers in the development and…

Linked blogs

Friday 09 April 2021
NIOZ podcast Van delta tot Diepzee aflevering 10 De diepzee als mijn
Prof. Dr. Gert-Jan Reichart beklimt het torentje van het NIOZ om te praten over diepzeemijnbouw en CO2. Op het moment dat we dit gesprek opnemen is, meer dan 10.000 kilometer van Texel verwijderd, de NIOZ geoloog Henko de Stigter op het Noorse…
Friday 12 July 2019
Education@NIOZ: Marine Masters Summer Course 2019
This July, the NIOZ Marine Masters Summer Course already takes place for the 11th time. More than thirty master & advanced bachelor students from Dutch and international universities dive into the world of multidisciplinary marine research at NIOZ.…
Thursday 13 June 2019
NIOZ@SEA | Joining the MiningImpact2 expedition of RV Sonne
The arrival of the German research vessel Sonne in the port of Vancouver, Canada, on Monday 27 May, marked the end of a 3-months scientific expedition to the Clarion-Clipperton Zone in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean. Four NIOZ scientists…
Monday 09 July 2018
Education@NIOZ: Marine Masters Summer Course 2018
This July, the NIOZ Marine Masters Summer Course already takes place for the 10th time. Thirty-one master & advanced bachelor students from Dutch, German, Belgian, Swedish and Austrian universities dive into the world of multidisciplinary marine…
Friday 20 October 2017
Saharan dust and Amazon freshwaters cause algal blooms
New findings suggest that both Saharan dust and freshwater from the Amazon may have led to algal blooms in the western equatorial Atlantic Ocean. Those are the conclusions of a new paper published by Catarina Guerreiro and colleagues in the…
Friday 14 July 2017
Education@NIOZ: Marine Masters Summer Course 2017
During the NIOZ Marine Masters Summer Course, 35 master & advanced bachelor students from Dutch, German, Spanish and French universities explore what marine research at NIOZ is about. With the western Wadden Sea as hands-on research area, the…
Wednesday 14 June 2017
New dust paper by Catarina Guerreiro accepted in Biogeosciences
New dust paper by Catarina Guerreiro accepted for Biogeosciences Discussions
Sunday 28 May 2017
NIOZ@Sea: Whittard Canyon Expedition
The unknown role of Submarine canyons – Pathways or sinks for Organic Carbon? Follow the blogs of NIOZ researchers aboard R.V. Pelagia as they cruise the Whittard Canyon complex situated in the Bay of Biscay.

NIOZ publications

  • 2023
    Haalboom, S.; de Stigter, H.; Mohn, C.; Vandorpe, T.; Smit, M.; de Jonge, L.; Reichart, G.-J. (2023). Monitoring of a sediment plume produced by a deep-sea mining test in shallow water, Málaga Bight, Alboran Sea (southwestern Mediterranean Sea). Mar. Geol. 456: 106971.
    Mil-Homens, M.; Almeida, C. M. R.; Dias, S.; Soares, W.; van Gaever, P.; de Stigter, H.; Santos, M.N.; Santana, A.; Freitas, M.; Abrantes, F.; Caetano, M. (2023). Spatial distribution and temporal trends of butyltin compounds (TBT, DBT & MBT) in short sediment cores of the SW Portuguese Shelf (western Iberian Margin, NE Atlantic). Sci. Total Environ. 900: 165872.
  • 2022
    Baeye, M.; Purkiani, K.; de Stigter, H.; Gillard, B.; Fettweis, M.; Greinert, J. (2022). Tidally driven dispersion of a deep-sea sediment plume originating from seafloor disturbance in the DISCOL Area (SE-Pacific Ocean). Geosciences 12(1): 8.
    Haalboom, S.; Schoening, T.; Urbanus, P.; Gazis, I.-Z.; De Stigter, H.; Gillard, B.; Baeye, M.; Hollstein, M.; Purkiani, K.; Reichart, G.-J.; Thomsen, L.; Haeckel, M.; Vink, A.; Greinert, J. (2022). Monitoring of anthropogenic sediment plumes in the Clarion-Clipperton Zone, NE Equatorial Pacific Ocean. Front. Mar. Sci. 9: 882155.
    Helmons, R.; de Wit, L.; de Stigter, H.; Spearman, J. (2022). Dispersion of benthic flumes in deep-dea mining: What lessons can be learned from dredging? Front. Earth Sci. 10: e868701.
    Purkiani, K.; Haeckel, M.; Haalboom, S.; Schmidt, K.; Urban, P.; Gazis, I.-Z.; de Stigter, H.; Paul, A.; Walter, M.; Vink, A. (2022). Impact of a long-lived anticyclonic mesoscale eddy on seawater anomalies in the northeastern tropical Pacific Ocean: a composite analysis from hydrographic measurements, sea level altimetry data, and reanalysis model products. Ocean Sci. 18(4): 1163-1181.
    Weaver, P.P.E.; Aguzzi, J.; Boschen-Rose, R.E.; Colaco, A.; de Stigter, H.; Gollner, S.; Haeckel, M.; Hauton, C.; Helmons, R.; Jones, D.O.B.; Lily, H.; Mestre, N.C.; Mohn, C.; Thomsen, L. (2022). Assessing plume impacts caused by polymetallic nodule mining vehicles. Mar. Policy 139: 105011.
    Zwier, M.; van der Bilt, W.G.M.; de Stigter, H.; Bjune, A.E. (2022). Pollen evidence of variations in Holocene climate and Southern Hemisphere Westerly Wind strength on sub-Antarctic South Georgia. Holocene 32(2): 147-158.
  • 2021
    Haalboom, S.; de Stigter, H.; Duineveld, G.; van Haren, H.; Reichart, G.-J.; Mienis, F. (2021). Suspended particulate matter in a submarine canyon (Whittard Canyon, Bay of Biscay, NE Atlantic Ocean): Assessment of commonly used instruments to record turbidity. Mar. Geol. 434: 106439.
    Mil-Homens, M.; Brito, P.; Caetano, M.; Costa, A.M.; Lebreiro, S.; Trancoso, M.; de Stigter, H. (2021). Influence of diagenetic processes and terrestrial/anthropogenic sources in the REE contents of the Cascais submarine canyon (Iberian western coast). Sci. Total Environ. 773: 145539.
    Purkiani, K.; Gillard, B.; Paul, A.; Haeckel, M.; Haalboom, S.; Greinert, J.; de Stigter, H.; Hollstein, M.; Baeye, M.; Vink, A.; Thomsen, L.; Schulz, M. (2021). Numerical simulation of deep-sea sediment transport induced by a dredge experiment in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. Front. Mar. Sci. 8: 719463.
  • 2020
    Costa-Böddeker, S.; Thuyên, L.X.; Hoelzmann, P.; de Stigter, H.C.; van Gaever, P.; Huy, H.D.; Smol, J.P.; Schwalb, A. (2020). Heavy metal pollution in a reforested mangrove ecosystem (Can Gio Biosphere Reserve, Southern Vietnam): Effects of natural and anthropogenic stressors over a thirty-year history. Sci. Total Environ. 716: 137035.
    Edelman-Furstenberg; Kidwell, S.M.; de Stigter, H.C. (2020). Mixing depths and sediment accumulation rates on an arid tropical shelf based on fine-fraction 210Pb analysis. Mar. Geol. 425: 106198.
    Haalboom, S.; Price, D.M.; Mienis, F.; van Bleijswijk, J.D.L.; de Stigter, H.; Witte, H.J.; Reichart, G.-J.; Duineveld, G.C.A. (2020). Patterns of (trace) metals and microorganisms in the Rainbow hydrothermal vent plume at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Biogeosciences 17(9): 2499-2519.
    Haffert, L.; Haeckel, M.; de Stigter, H.; Janssen, F. (2020). Assessing the temporal scale of deep-sea mining impacts on sediment biogeochemistry. Biogeosciences 17(10): 2767-2789.
    Klunder, L.; De Stigter, H.; Lavaleye, M.S.S.; van Bleijswijk, J.D.L.; van der Veer, H.W.; Reichart, G.-J.; Duineveld, G.C.A. (2020). A molecular approach to explore the background benthic fauna around a hydrothermal vent and their larvae: Implications for future mining of deep-sea SMS deposits. Front. Mar. Sci. 7: 134.
  • 2019
    van de Velde, S.; Jorissen, E.L.; Neubauer, T.A.; Radan, S.; Pavel, A.B.; Stoica, M.; Van Baak, C.G.C.; Martínez Gándara, A.; Popa, L.; De Stigter, H.; Abels, H.A.; Krijgsman, W.; Wesselingh, F.P. (2019). A conservation palaeobiological approach to assess faunal response of threatened biota under natural and anthropogenic environmental change. Biogeosciences 16(12): 2423-2442.
    van Wijk, J.M.; Haalboom, S.; de Hoog, E.; de Stigter, H.; Smit, M. (2019). Impact fragmentation of polymetallic nodules under deep ocean pressure conditions. Minerals Engineering 134: 250-260.
  • 2018
    Costa-Böddeker, S.; Thuyên, L.X.; Hoelzmann, P.; de Stigter, H.C.; van Gaever, P.; Schwalb, A. (2018). The hidden threat of heavy metal pollution in high sedimentation and highly dynamic environment: Assessment of metal accumulation rates in the Thi Vai Estuary, Southern Vietnam. Environ. Pollut. 242: 348-356.
  • 2017
    Guerreiro, C.V.; Baumann, K.-H.; Brummer, G.-J. A.; Fischer, G.; Korte, L.F.; Merkel, U.; Sá, C.; de Stigter, H.; Stuut, J.-B.W. (2017). Coccolithophore fluxes in the open tropical North Atlantic: influence of thermocline depth, Amazon water, and Saharan dust. Biogeosciences 14(20): 4577-4599.
    Malkin, S.Y.; Seitaj, D.; Burdorf, L.D.W.; Nieuwhof, S.; Hidalgo-Martinez, S.; Tramper, A.; Geeraert, N.; De Stigter, H.; Meysman, F.J.R. (2017). Electrogenic sulfur oxidation by cable bacteria in bivalve reef sediments. Front. Mar. Sci. 4: 28.
    van Haren, H.; Duineveld, G.; De Stigter , H. (2017). Prefrontal bore mixing. Geophys. Res. Lett. 44(18): 9408-9415.
    van Haren, H.; Hanz, U.; de Stigter, H.; Mienis, F.; Duineveld, G. (2017). Internal wave turbulence at a biologically rich Mid-Atlantic seamount. PLoS One 12(12): e0189720.
    Zohar, I.; Teutsch, N.; Levin, N.; Mackin, G.; de Stigter, H.; Bookman, R. (2017). Urbanization effects on sediment and trace metals distribution in an urban winter pond (Netanya, Israel). J. Soils Sediments 17(8): 2165-2176.
  • 2016
    Amaro, T.; Huvenne, V.A.I.; Allcock, A.L.; Aslam, T.; Davies, J.S.; Danovaro, R.; de Stigter, H.C.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; Gambi, C.; Gooday, A.J.; Gunton, L.M.; Hall, R.; Howell, K.L.; Ingels, J.; Kiriakoulakis, K.; Kershaw, C.E.; Lavaleye, M.; Robert, K.; Stewart, H.; Van Rooij, D.; White, M.; Wilson, A.M. (2016). The Whittard Canyon – a case study of submarine canyon processes. Prog. Oceanogr. 146: 38-57.
    Bareket, M.M.; Bookman, R.; Katsman, R.; de Stigter, H.; Herut, B. (2016). The role of transport processes of particulate mercury in modifying marine anthropogenic secondary sources, the case of Haifa bay, Israel. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 105(1): 286–291.
    Best, M.M.R.; Favali, P.; Beranzoli, L.; Blandin, J.; Cagatay, N.M.; Cannat, M.; Dañobeitia, J.J.; Delory, E.; de Miranda, J.M.A.; Del Rio Fernandez, J.; De Stigter , H.; Gillooly, M.; Grant, F.; Hall, P.O.J.; Hartman, S.E.; Hernandez-Brito, J.; Lanteri, N.; Mienert, J.; Oaie, G.; Piera, J.; Radulescu, V.; Rolin, J.-F.; Ruhl, H.A.; Waldmann, C. (2016). The EMSO-ERIC Pan-European Consortium: Data Benefits and Lessons Learned as the Legal Entity Forms. Mar. Technol. Soc. J. 50(3): 8-15.
    Luo, M.; Dale, A. W.; Haffert, L.; Haeckel, M.; Koch, S.; Crutchley, G.; De Stigter , H.; Chen, D.; Greinert, J. (2016). A quantitative assessment of methane cycling in Hikurangi Margin sediments (New Zealand) using geophysical imaging and biogeochemical modeling. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 17: 4817–4835.
    Warden, L.; Kim, J.-H; Zell, C.; Vis, G.-J.; de Stigter, H.C.; Bonnin, J.; Sinninghe Damste, J.S. (2016). Examining the provenance of branched GDGTs in the Tagus River drainage basin and its outflow into the Atlantic Ocean over the Holocene to determine their usefulness for paleoclimate applications. Biogeosciences 13: 5719-5738.
  • 2015
    Amaro, T.; de Stigter, H.; Lavaleye, M.S.S.; Duineveld, G.C.A. (2015). Organic matter enrichment in the Whittard Channel; its origin and possible effects on benthic megafauna. Deep-Sea Res., Part 1, Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 102: 90-100.
    Dessandier, P.-A.; Bonnin, J.; Kim, J.-H.; Bichona, S.; Grémare, A.; Deflandre, B.; de Stigter, H.; Malaizé, B. (2015). Lateral and vertical distributions of living benthic foraminifera off the Douro River (western Iberian margin): Impact of the organic matter quality. Mar. Micropaleontol. 120: 31–45.
    Guerreiro, C.; de Stigter, H.; Cachão, M.; Oliveira, A.; Rodrigues, A. (2015). Coccoliths from recent sediments of the central Portuguese margin: Taphonomical and ecological inferences. Mar. Micropaleontol. 114: 55-68.
    Sørensen, H.L.; Meire, L.; Juul-Pedersen, T.; de Stigter, H.; Meysman, F.J.R.; Rysgaard, S.; Thamdrup, B.; Glud, R.N. (2015). Seasonal carbon cycling in a Greenlandic fjord: an integrated pelagic and benthic study. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 539: 1-17.
  • 2014
    Best, M.; Favali, P.; Beranzoli, L.; Cannat, M.; Cagatay, Namik; Dañobeitia, J.J.; Delory, E.; de Stigter, H.; Ferré, B.; Gillooly, M.; Grant, F.; Hall, P.O.J.; Lykousis, V.; Mienert, J.; de Miranda, J.M.A.; Oaie, G.; Radulescu, V.; Rolin, J.F.; Ruhl, H.A.; Waldmann, C. (2014). EMSO: A distributed infrastructure for addressing geohazards and global ocean change. Oceanography 27(2): 167–169.
    de Stigter, H.; Reichart, G.-J. (2014). Diepzee mijnbouw. Cah. Bio.- Wet. Maatsch. kwartaal 2: 67-71
    Guerreiro, C.; Sá, C.; de Stigter, H.; Oliveira, A.; Cachão, M.; Cros, L.; Borges, C.; Quaresma, L.; Santos, A.I.; Fortuño, J.-M.; Rodrigez, A. (2014). Influence of the Nazaré Canyon, central Portuguese margin, on late winter coccolithophore assemblages. Deep-Sea Res., Part 2, Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 104: 335-358.
    Smeulders, G.G.B.; Koho, K.A.; de Stigter, H.C.; Mienis, F.; de Haas, H.; van Weering, T.C.E. (2014). Cold-water coral habitats of Rockall and Porcupine Bank, NE Atlantic Ocean: Sedimentary facies and benthic foraminiferal assemblages. Deep-Sea Res., Part 2, Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 99: 270-285.
    Zohar, I.; Bookman, R.; Levin, N.; de Stigter, H.; Teutsch, N. (2014). Contamination History of Lead and Other Trace Metals Reconstructed from an Urban Winter Pond in the Eastern Mediterranean Coast (Israel). Environ. Sci. Technol. 48(23): 13592–13600.
  • 2013
    Guerreiro, C.; Oliveira, A.; de Stigter, H.; Cachão, M.; Sá, C.; Borges, C.; Cros, L.; Santos, A.; Fortuño, J.M.; Rodrigues, A. (2013). Late winter coccolithophore bloom off central Portugal in response to river discharge and upwelling. Cont. Shelf Res. 59: 65-83.
    Jesus, C.C.; de Stigter, H.; Miranda, P.; Oliveira, A.; Rocha, F. (2013). Distribution patterns and enrichment of lead, zinc and copper in surface sediments of the central Portuguese shelf and upper slope. Journal of Iberian Geology 39(2): 335-348.
    Mil-Holmens, M.; Blum, J.; Canário, J.; Caetano, M.; Costa, A.M.; Lebreiro, S.M.; Trancoso, M.; Richter, T.O.; de Stigter, H.; Johnson, M.; Branco, V.; Cesário, R.; Mouro, F.; Mateus, M.; Boer, W.; Melo, Z. (2013). Tracing anthropogenic Hg and Pb input using stable Hg and Pb isotope ratios in sediments of the central Portuguese Margin. Chem. Geol. 336: 62-71.
  • 2012
    Contreras-Rosales, L.A.; Koho, K.A.; Duijnstee, I.A.P.; de Stigter, H.C.; García, R.; Koning, E.; Epping, E. (2012). Living deep-sea benthic foraminifera from the Cap de Creus Canyon (western Mediterranean): Faunal-geochemical interactions. Deep-Sea Res., Part 1, Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 64: 22-42.
    Duros, P.; Fontanier, C.; de Stigter, H.C.; Cesbron, F.; Metzger, E.; Jorissen, F.J. (2012). Live and dead benthic foraminiferal faunas from Whittard Canyon (NE Atlantic): Focus on taphonomic processes and paleo-environmental applications. Mar. Micropaleontol. 94-95: 25-44.
    Mienis, F.; De Stigter, H.C.; de Haas, H.; van der Land, C.; van Weering, T.C.E. (2012). Hydrodynamic conditions in a cold-water coral mound area on the Renard Ridge, southern Gulf of Cadiz. J. Mar. Syst. 96-97: 61-71.
    Morigi, C.; Sabbatini, A.; Vitale, G.; Pancotti, I.; Gooday, A.J.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; de Stigter, H.C.; Danovaro, R.; Negri, A. (2012). Foraminiferal biodiversity associated with cold-water coral carbonate mounds and open slope of SE Rockall Bank (Irish continental margin-NE Atlantic). Deep-Sea Res., Part 1, Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 59: 54-71.
    Phipps, M.; Jorissen, F.; Pusceddu, A.; Biamchelli, S.; de Stigter, H. (2012). Live benthic foraminiferal faunas along a bathymetrical transect (282–4987 m) on the Portuguese margin (NE Atlantic). Journal of Foraminiferal Research 42(1): 66-81.
  • 2011
    Costa, A.M.; Mil-Homens, M.; Lebreiro, S.M.; Richter, T.O.; de Stigter, H.; Boer, W.; Trancoso, M.A.; Melo, Z.; Mouro, F.; Mateus, M.; Canário, J.; Branco, V.; Caetano, M. (2011). Origin and transport of trace metals deposited in the canyons off Lisboa and adjacent slopes (Portuguese Margin) in the last century. Mar. Geol. 282(3-4): 169-177.
    Cunha, M.R.; Paterson, G.L.J.; Amaro, T.; Blackbird, S.; de Stigter, H.C.; Ferreira, C.; Glover, A.; Hilário, A.; Kiriakoulakis, K.; Neal, L.; Ravara, A.; Rodrigues, C.F.; Tiago, A.; Billett, D.S.M. (2011). Biodiversity of macrofaunal assemblages from three Portuguese submarine canyons (NE Atlantic). Deep-Sea Res., Part 2, Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 58(23-24): 2433-2447.
    de Stigter, H.C.; Jesus, C.C.; Boer, W.; Richter, T.O.; Costa, A.; van Weering, T.C.E. (2011). Recent sediment transport and deposition in the Lisbon-Setúbal and Cascais submarine canyons, Portuguese continental margin. Deep-Sea Res., Part II, Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 58(23-24): 2321-2344.
    Duros, P.; Fontanier, C.; Metzger, E.; Pusceddu, A.; Cesbron, F.; de Stigter, H.C.; Bianchelli, S.; Danovaro, R.; Jorissen, F.J. (2011). Live (stained) benthic foraminifera in the Whittard Canyon, Celtic margin (NE Atlantic). Deep-Sea Res., Part 1, Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 58(2): 128-146.
    Martín, J.; Palanques, A.; Vitorino, J.; Oliveira, A.; de Stigter, H.C. (2011). Near-bottom particulate matter dynamics in the Nazare submarine canyon under calm and stormy conditions. Deep-Sea Res., Part 2, Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 58(23-24): 2388-2400.
    Masson, D.G.; Huvenne, V.A.I.; de Stigter, H.C.; Arzola, R.G.; Lebas, T.P. (2011). Sedimentary processes in the middle Nazaré Canyon. Deep-Sea Res., Part 2, Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 58(23-24): 2369-2387.
    Paterson, G.L.J.; Glover, A.G.; Cunha, M.R.; Neal, L.; de Stigter, H.C.; Kiriakoulakis, K.; Billett, D.S.M.; Wolff, G.A.; Tiago, A.; Ravara, A.; Lamont, P.; Tyler, P. (2011). Disturbance, productivity and diversity in deep-sea canyons: A worm's eye view. Deep-Sea Res., Part II, Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 58(23-24): 2448-2460.
    van der Land, C.; Mienis, F.; de Haas, H.; de Stigter, H.C.; Swennen, R.; Reijmer, J.J.G.; van Weering, T.C.E. (2011). Paleo-redox fronts and their formation in carbonate mound sediments from the Rockall Trough. Mar. Geol. 284(1-4): 86-95.
    van Oevelen, D.; Soetaert, K.; Garcia, R.; de Stigter, H.C.; Cunha, M.R.; Pusceddu, A.; Danovaro, R.; Garcia, R. (2011). Canyon conditions impact carbon flows in food webs of three sections of the Nazare canyon. Deep-Sea Res., Part 2, Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 58(23-24): 2461-2476.

Linked projects

NSME_North Sea Methane Emissions
Gert-Jan Reichart
Project duration
1 Jan 2022 - 31 Dec 2025
TREASURE_Towards Responsible Extraction of Submarine mineral Resources
Henko de Stigter
Project duration
6 Nov 2013 - 5 Nov 2017
EIT Upscaling Blue Harvesting
Henko de Stigter
European Community
Project duration
1 Apr 2019 - 31 Mar 2022