Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research
Phone number
+31 (0)222 36 9410
Ocean Systems (OCS)
Research Leader
  • Trace Metals
  • Marine biogeochemical cycles
  • Chemical oceanography
  • ICP-MS
  • Role of metals in marine ecosystems

Prof. Dr. Rob Middag

Research Leader

‘Metals are key to understanding life in our oceans’

Chemical oceanographer Rob Middag has specialised in the chemistry of the oceans. ‘I mainly examine the role of metals in marine ecosystems. Metals like copper, zinc, nickel and manganese might elicit negative associations, but ultimately they are just as vital for life, for example, iron that enables the transport of oxygen in our blood. However, the concentrations in the oceans are very low. For healthy marine life, the amount of iron in a single paperclip dissolved in fifteen Olympic swimming pools of seawater is sufficient.

One of the challenges of my discipline is that it has only been possible to accurately measure such minuscule quantities of metals since the 1980s, so quite recently. Researching metals in seawater means: working with titanium instruments on plastic cables and wearing protective suits and hair nets in the lab because a single drop of sweat or a flake of skin can ruin the measurement.’

Iron fertilisation

‘We now know that in almost half of the world’s oceans, iron is limiting the growth of algae, which form the basis of the marine food web. This means that more algal growth will occur when more iron is added and that those algae will therefore take up more CO2. But that does not mean that the climate issue can be solved by chopping up a rusting tanker and using it to fertilise the oceans. That is because those algae will largely remain in the food chain and will therefore not remove CO2 from the cycle for the long term.’

‘Similar mechanisms occur for the other essential metals, although nickel and zinc, for example, are not directly limiting. However, they could cause a shift in the species composition of algae if their concentration in the seawater changed.’

Metal tool

‘Nevertheless, I do not exclude the possibility that a certain point, we will investigate metals in seawater if we want to tinker on the climate effect. That is because the ocean is by far the biggest reservoir of CO2. But understanding metal metabolism is also vital if we want to responsibly stimulate the fishing sector or ocean aquaculture. Just like a dairy farmer needs to know how to fertilise their grass, a salmon fish farmer in Canada or a seaweed farmer in the North Sea needs to understand how iron ultimately influences the growth of salmon or seaweed.’

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Research interest & specialisation

My research focusses on the role of metals in marine ecosystems. Though often solely regarded as toxins, metals are required as nutrients for the growth of all organisms. Metals form the reactive centres of enzymes, enabling these to perform biochemical functions, such as oxygen-transport or photosynthesis. As such, trace metals are central to the health of individual organisms as well as entire ecosystems. On the other hand, elevated concentrations of metals can have detrimental effect to individual organisms as well as ecosystems and this double sided nature of metals is what inspires my research. Specific research foci:
    •    Determination of trace elements in seawater samples to establish drivers (trace nutrients) or stressors in marine ecosystems. Especially in the (sub)Antarctic regions, trace metal availability regulates primary production. The role of iron is well established, but the role of other metals is becoming more evident as well.
    •     Development and application of ICP-MS based and flow injection methods for the analysis of trace elements in sea water to expand our capabilities to determine levels of trace nutrient levels, contaminants as well as tracers of ocean processes.
    •    Trace metal clean bio assays to assess trace nutrient stress.
    •    Ultra clean sampling of open ocean regions for trace elements; to get reliable data on trace elements and their functions in ecosystems, utmost care must be taken during sampling and sample handling to avoid contamination. 


Linked news

Tuesday 05 March 2024
Deep sea and sediments bring iron to Antarctic waters
Deep sea and sediments bring iron to Antarctic waters Iron that fertilizes the waters around Antarctica, mostly comes from the deep, upwelling waters and the sediments around the continent. That is shown by field research of NIOZ marine…
Wednesday 12 October 2022
Inaugural lecture Rob Middag 28 October 2022 | 'We need to gain ocean literacy'
Not only do the oceans cover 70% of the earth’s surface, they also hold nearly 95% of all actively circulating carbon. Despite that huge importance, we still know very little about the oceans, "let alone about the place of metals like iron or…
Friday 29 July 2022
How coastal seas help the ocean in absorbing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere
The biologically productive North Sea impacts the global climate through exchange of carbon and nutrients with the Atlantic Ocean. A Dutch consortium of scientists will investigate how big this role of the North Sea really is. Under the leadership of…
Thursday 27 January 2022
Unexpected distributions of trace metals in the Mediterranean Sea
Researchers from Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ) and New Zealand (University of Otago) have discovered several remarkable facts of the distribution of the trace metals manganese, nickel, cadmium and zinc dissolved in the…
Monday 13 September 2021
Rob Middag appointed honorary professor Marine Trace Metal Biogeochemistry
On 1 September 2021 Rob Middag has been appointed as honorary professor in Marine Trace Metal Biogeochemistry at the University of Groningen in the Centre for Isotope Research (CIO) Oceans group. As a chemical oceanographer, Rob Middag's research…
Tuesday 31 August 2021
Large difference in role of iron between oceans near Greenland and Antarctica
Though a lack of iron is a factor limiting algal growth in the oceans, more dissolved iron in the ocean East of Greenland due to the melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet does not lead to more algae there. Off the coast of Antarctica, on the other hand,…
Wednesday 08 April 2020
A rapidly changing Arctic: Shelf sediments, freshwater runoff from rivers brings more carbon, nutrients to North Pole
A new study by researchers at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) and their international colleagues, among which several NIOZ researchers, found that freshwater runoff from rivers and continental shelf sediments are bringing significant…
Friday 23 August 2019
Phytoplankton, the base of the ocean’s food-chain, can influence climate
A recent study, conducted by researchers from Dalhousie University and NIOZ researcher Rob Middag has been published in Nature Communications. They examined the effects of low iron and manganese, an element often found in minerals in combination with…
Friday 01 June 2018
3 Vidi-beurzen voor NIOZ-onderzoekers | 3 Vidi grants for NIOZ researchers
[Scroll down for English version] De Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO) heeft aan drie ervaren NIOZ-onderzoekers een Vidi-financiering van 800.000 euro toegekend. Hiermee kunnen zij de komende vijf jaar een eigen,…
Thursday 16 March 2017
Sea Acceptance Test Confirms Quality of NIOZ ‘Pristine’ Ultra Clean CTD
In March 2017, a Sea Acceptance Test (SAT) of the ‘Pristine’ Ultra Clean CTD-system (UCC) was successfully carried out on board of the South Korean research vessel ‘Isabu’, sailing from Guam in the Pacific Ocean near the Mariana-trench. This system…

Linked blogs

Tuesday 14 November 2023
East Antarctic expedition
From November 2023 to February 2024, we will join the international EASI-2 research expedition to East Antarctica with 4 Dutch scientists: Rob Middag, Wytze Lenstra, Florine Kooij and Robin van Dijk. Our goal is to study bio-essential trace metals:…
Monday 22 May 2023
NoSE expedition to the Norwegian Trench 26 May - 14 June 2023
The biologically productive North Sea impacts the global climate through exchange of carbon and nutrients with the Atlantic Ocean. The North Sea is a very productive coastal sea. A lot of carbon dioxide (CO2) can be taken up through physical,…
Friday 04 March 2022
Podcast Van Delta tot Diepzee 20_De oceaan als bad vol mineralen. Met bioloog Rob Middag
De oceaan is een bad vol mineralen. Of een wereldomvattende soeppan vol chemische processen, waarin de ingrediënten iedere 2000 jaar door de grote soeplepel van de golfstromen worden omgeroerd. Het leven van alle wezens die er in rond dobberen of…
Wednesday 14 July 2021
MetalGate 2021 Cruise
An interdisciplinary team of 12 Marine Chemistry, Biology, and Geology scientists and technicians from the Netherlands, Canada and UK, together with the 13-headed Pelagia crew, will embark on a research expedition to the High Latitude North Atlantic…
Monday 26 October 2020
NIOZ@SEA | Testing Ultra Clean Near Bottom Sampler for Metalgate
Metals are often regarded as toxic contaminants, but they also are essential nutrients. Trace metals such as iron or zinc are required for the growth of all organisms, including phytoplankton that form the base of the marine food web. Given that…
Monday 11 February 2019
Antarctic expedition FePhyrus II
Wat hebben ijzer en virus-infecties in Antarctica met elkaar te maken? We zijn op expeditie in de Zuidelijke Oceaan en de Weddellzee om dit uit te zoeken. Volg onze avonturen in de winter van 2018/2019 via deze blog! ~~~~ English version below ~~~~
Wednesday 21 February 2018
Antarctic expedition FePhyrus
Wat hebben ijzer en virus-infecties in Antarctica met elkaar te maken? We zijn op expeditie in de kustgebieden van West-Antarctica om dit uit te zoeken. Volg onze avonturen in de winter van 2017/2018 via deze blog! ~~~~ English version…
Friday 18 August 2017
Expedition STRATIPHYT-17
An ad-hoc cruise where an interdisciplinary team will build on earlier obtained knowledge during the STRATIPHYT project, but where we will also investigate new ideas, and collect samples for others that cannot join the cruise. The team consists of 3…

NIOZ publications

  • 2023
    Olivelli, A.; Murphy, K.; Bridgestock, L.; Wilson, D.J.; Rijkenberg, M.J.A.; Middag, R.; Weiss, D.J.; van de Flierdt, T.; Rehkämper, M. (2023). Decline of anthropogenic lead in South Atlantic Ocean surface waters from 1990 to 2011: New constraints from concentration and isotope data. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 189: 114798.
    Tian, H.-A.; van Manen, M.; Wille, F.; Jung, J.; Lee, S.H.; Kim, T.-W.; Aoki, S.; Eich, C.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Reichart, G.-J.; Conway, T.M.; Middag, R. (2023). The biogeochemistry of zinc and cadmium in the Amundsen Sea, coastal Antarctica. Mar. Chem. 249: 104223.
    Tian, H.-A.; van Manen, M.H.; Bunnell, Z.B.; Jung, J.; Lee, S.H.; Kim, T.-W.; Reichart, G.-J.; Conway, T.M.; Middag, R. (2023). Biogeochemistry of iron in coastal Antarctica: isotopic insights for external sources and biological uptake in the Amundsen Sea polynyas. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 363: 51-67.
    Zhu, K.; Achterberg, E.P.; Bates, N.R.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; Middag, R.; Hopwood, M.J.; Gledhill, M. (2023). Influence of changes in pH and temperature on the distribution of apparent iron solubility in the oceans. Global Biogeochem. Cycles 37(5).
  • 2022
    Eich, C.; Biggs, T.E.G.; van de Poll, W.H.; van Manen, M.H.; Tian, H.-A.; Jung, J.; Lee, Y.; Middag, R.; Brussaard, C.P.D. (2022). Ecological importance of viral lysis as a loss factor of phytoplankton in the Amundsen Sea. Microorganisms 10(10): 1967.
    Jensen, L.T.; Cullen, J.T.; Jackson, S.L.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; Bauch, D.; Middag, R.; Sherrell, R.M.; Fitzsimmons, J.N. (2022). A refinement of the processes controlling dissolved copper and nickel biogeochemistry: Insights from the pan‐Arctic. JGR: Oceans 127(5): e2021JC01808.
    Joy-Warren, H.L.; Alderkamp, A.-C.; van Dijken, G.L.; Jabre, L.; Bertrand, E.M.; Baldonado, E.N.; Glickman, M.W.; Lewis, K.M.; Middag, R.; Seyitmuhammedov, K.; Lowry, K.E.; van de Poll, W.; Arrigo, K.R. (2022). Springtime phytoplankton responses to light and iron availability along the western Antarctic Peninsula. Limnol. Oceanogr. 67(4): 800-815.
    Kipp, M.A.; Li, H.; Ellwood, M.J.; John, S.G.; Middag, R.; Adkins, J.F.; Tissot, F.L.H. (2022). 238U, 235U and 234U in seawater and deep-sea corals: A high-precision reappraisal. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 336: 231-248.
    Kleint, C.; Zitoun, R.; Neuholz, R.; Walter, M.; Schnetger, B.; Klose, L.; Chiswell, S.M.; Middag, R.; Laan, P.; Sander, S.G.; Koschinsky, A. (2022). Trace metal dynamics in shallow hydrothermal plumes at the Kermadec arc. Front. Mar. Sci. 8: 782734.
    Krisch, S.; Hopwood, M.J.; Roig, S.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; Middag, R.; Rutgers van der Loeff, M.M.R.; Petrova, M.V.; Lodeiro, P.; Colombo, M.; Cullen, J.T.; Jackson, S.L.; Heimbürger-Boavida, L.-E.; Achterberg, E.P. (2022). Arctic – Atlantic exchange of the dissolved micronutrients iron, manganese, cobalt, nickel, copper and zinc with a focus on Fram Strait. Global Biogeochem. Cycles 36(5): e2021GB007191.
    Middag, R.; Zitoun, R.; Conway, T.M. (2022). Trace Metals, in: (2023). Marine Analytical Chemistry. pp. 103-198.
    Seyitmuhammedov, K.; Stirling, C.H.; Reid, M.; van Hale, R.; Laan, P.; Arrigo, K.R.; van Dijken, G.; Alderkamp, A.-C.; Middag, R. (2022). The distribution of Fe across the shelf of the Western Antarctic Peninsula at the start of the phytoplankton growing season. Mar. Chem. 238: 104066.
    van Manen, M.H.; Aoki, S.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Conway, T.M.; Eich, C.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; Jung, J.; Kim, T.-W.; Lee, S.H.; Lee, Y.; Reichart, G.-J.; Tian, H.-A.; Wille, F.; Middag, R. (2022). The role of the Dotson Ice Shelf and Circumpolar Deep Water as driver and source of dissolved and particulate iron and manganese in the Amundsen Sea polynya, Southern Ocean. Mar. Chem. 246: 104161.
  • 2021
    Ardiningsih, I.; Seyitmuhammedov, K.; Sander, S.G.; Stirling, C.H.; Reichart, G.-J.; Arrigo, K.R.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; Middag, R. (2021). Fe-binding organic ligands in coastal and frontal regions of the western Antarctic Peninsula. Biogeosciences 18(15): 4587-4601.
    Ardiningsih, I.; Zhu, K.; Lodeiro, P.; Gledhill, M.; Reichart, G.-J.; Achterberg, E.P.; Middag, R.; Gerringa, L.J.A. (2021). Iron speciation in Fram Strait and over the northeast Greenland shelf: An inter-comparison study of voltammetric methods. Front. Mar. Sci. 7: 609379.
    Baker, A.R.; Kanakidou, M.; Nenes, A.; Myriokefalitakis, S.; Croot, P.L.; Duce, R.A.; Gao, Y.; Guieu, C.; Ito, A.; Jickells, T.D.; Mahowald, N.M.; Middag, R.; Perron, M.M.G.; Sarin, M.M.; Shelley, R.; Turner, D.R. (2021). Changing atmospheric acidity as a modulator of nutrient deposition and ocean biogeochemistry. Science Advances 7(28): eabd8800.
    Gerringa, L.J.A.; Rijkenberg, M.J.A.; Slagter, H.A.; Laan, P.; Paffrath, R.; Bauch, D.; Rutgers van der Loeff, M.; Middag, R. (2021). Dissolved Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn in the Arctic Ocean. JGR: Oceans 126(9): e2021JC017323.
    Middag, R.; Rolison, J.M.; George, E.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; Rijkenberg, M.J.A.; Stirling, C.H. (2022). Basin scale distributions of dissolved manganese, nickel, zinc and cadmium in the Mediterranean Sea. Mar. Chem. 238: 104063.
    van Haren, H.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; van Manen, M.H.; Middag, R.; Groenewegen, R. (2021). Diapycnal mixing across the photic zone of the NE Atlantic. Ocean Sci. 17: 301-318.
  • 2020
    Ardiningsih, I.; Krisch, S.; Lodeiro, P.; Reichart, G.-J.; Achterberg, E.P.; Gledhill, M.; Middag, R.; Gerringa, L.J.A. (2020). Natural Fe-binding organic ligands in Fram Strait and over the northeast Greenland shelf. Mar. Chem. 224: 103815.
    Charette, M.A.; Kipp, L.E.; Jensen, L.T.; Dabrowski, J.S.; Whitmore, L.M.; Fitzsimmons, J.N.; Williford, T.; Ulfsbo, A.; Jones, E.; Bundy, R.M.; Vivancos, S.M.; Pahnke, K.; John, S.G.; Xiang, Y.; Hatta, M.; Petrova, M.V.; Heimbürger‐Boavida, L.‐E.; Bauch, D.; Newton, R.; Pasqualini, A.; Agather, A.M.; Amon, R.M.W.; Anderson, R.F.; Andersson, P.S.; Benner, R.; Bowman, K.L.; Edwards, R.L.; Gdaniec, S.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; González, A.G.; Granskog, M.; Haley, B.; Hammerschmidt, C.R.; Hansell, D.A.; Henderson, P.B.; Kadko, D.C.; Kaiser, K.; Laan, P.; Lam, P.J.; Lamborg, C.H.; Levier, M.; Li, X.; Margolin, A.R.; Measures, C.; Middag, R.; Millero, F.J.; Moore, W.S.; Paffrath, R.; Planquette, H.; Rabe, B.; Reader, H.; Rember, R.; Rijkenberg, M.J.A.; Roy‐Barman, M.; Rutgers van der Loeff, M.; Saito, M.; Schauer, U.; Schlosser, P.; Sherrell, R.M.; Shiller, A.M.; Slagter, H.; Sonke, J.E.; Stedmon, C.; Woosley, R.J.; Valk, O.; Ooijen, J.; Zhang, R. (2020). The Transpolar Drift as a source of riverine and shelf‐derived trace elements to the central Arctic Ocean. JGR: Oceans 125(5): e2019JC015920.
    Gerringa, L.J.A.; Alderkamp, A.-C.; van Dijken, G.; Laan, P.; Middag, R.; Arrigo, K.R. (2020). Dissolved trace metals in the Ross Sea. Front. Mar. Sci. 7: article 577098.
    Menzel Barraqueta, J.-L.; Samanta, S.; Achterberg, E.P.; Bowie, A.R.; Croot, P.; Cloete, R.; De Jongh, T.; Gelado-Caballero, M.D.; Klar, J.K.; Middag, R.; Loock, J.C.; Remenyi, T.A.; Wenzel, B.; Roychoudhury, A.N. (2020). A first global oceanic compilation of observational dissolved aluminum data with regional statistical data treatment. Front. Mar. Sci. 7: Article 468.
    Middag, R.; De Baar, H.J.W.; Bruland, K.W.; van Heuven, S.M.A.C. (2020). The distribution of nickel in the west-Atlantic Ocean, its relationship with phosphate and a comparison to cadmium and zinc. Front. Mar. Sci. 7(article 105).
    Neuholz, R.; Kleint, C.; Schnetger, B.; Koschinsky, A.; Laan, P.; Middag, R.; Sander, S.G.; Thal, J.; Türke, A.; Walter, M.; Zitoun, R.; Brumsack, H.-J. (2020). Submarine hydrothermal discharge and fluxes of dissolved Fe and Mn, and He isotopes at brothers volcano based on radium isotopes. Minerals 10(11): 969.
  • 2019
    George, E.; Stirling, C.H.; Gault-Ringold, M.; Ellwood, M.J.; Middag, R. (2019). Marine biogeochemical cycling of cadmium and cadmium isotopes in the extreme nutrient-depleted subtropical gyre of the South West Pacific Ocean. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 514: 84-95.
    Grand, M.M.; Laes-Huon, A.; Fietz, S.; Resing, J.A.; Obata, H.; Luther, G.W.; Tagliabue, A.; Achterberg, E.P.; Middag, R.; Tovar-Sanchez, A.; Bowie, A.R. (2019). Developing autonomous observing systems for micronutrient trace metals. Front. Mar. Sci. 6: 35.
    Hartland, A.; Zitoun, R.; Middag, R.; Sander, S.; Laferriere, A.; Saeed, H.; De Luca, S.; Ross, P.M. (2019). Aqueous copper bioavailability linked to shipwreck-contaminated reef sediments. NPG Scientific Reports 9(1): 13 pp.
    Middag, R.; de Baar, H.J.W.; Bruland, K.W. (2019). The relationships between dissolved zinc and major nutrients phosphate and silicate along the GEOTRACES GA02 transect in the west Atlantic Ocean. Global Biogeochem. Cycles 33(1): 63-84.
    Wu, M.; McCain, J.S.P.; Rowland, E.; Middag, R.; Sandgren, M.; Allen, A.E.; Bertrand, E.M. (2019). Manganese and iron deficiency in Southern Ocean Phaeocystis antarctica populations revealed through taxon-specific protein indicators. Nature Comm. 10: 3582.
  • 2018
    Arrigo, K.R.; van Dijken, G.L.; Alderkamp, A.-C.; Erickson, Z.K.; Lewis, K.M.; Lowry, K.E.; Joy-Warren, H.L.; Middag, R.; Nash-Arrigo, J.E.; Selz, V.; van de Poll, W. (2017). Early Spring Phytoplankton Dynamics in the Western Antarctic Peninsula. JGR: Oceans 122(12): 9350–9369.
    Baltar, F.; Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, A.; Meyer, M.; Skudelny, I.; Sander, S.; Thomson, B.; Nodder, S.; Middag, R.; Morales, S.E. (2018). Specific effect of trace metals on marine heterotrophic microbial activity and diversity: Key role of iron and zinc and hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria. Front. Microbiol. 9: 3190.
    Dulaquais, G.; Waeles, M.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; Middag, R.; Rijkenberg, M.J.A.; Riso, R. (2018). The biogeochemistry of electroactive humic substances and its connection to iron chemistry in the North East Atlantic and the western Mediterranean Sea. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans 123(8): 5481-5499.
    Middag, R.; van Heuven, S.M.A.C.; Bruland, K.W.; de Baar, H.J.W. (2018). The relationship between cadmium and phosphate in the Atlantic Ocean unravelled. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 492: 79-88.
    Rolison, J.M.; Sterling, C.H.; Middag, R.; Gault-Ringold, M.; George, E.; Rijkenberg, M.J.A. (2018). Iron isotope fractionation during pyrite formation in a sulfidic Precambrian ocean analogue. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 488: 1-13.
    Rusiecka, D.; Gledhill, M.; Milne, A.; Achterberg, E.P.; Annett, A.L.; Atkinson, S.; Birchill, A.; Karstensen, J.; Lohan, M.; Mariez, C.; Middag, R.; Rolison, J.M.; Tanhua, T.; Ussher, S.; Connelly, D. (2018). Anthropogenic signatures of lead in the Northeast Atlantic. Geophys. Res. Lett. 45(6): 2734-2743.
    Schlitzer,R.; Anderson,R.F.; Dodas,E.M.; Lohan,M.; Geibert,W.; Tagliabue,A.; Bowie,A.; Jeandel,C.; Maldonado,M.T.; Landing,W.M.; Cockwell,D.; Abadie,C.; Abouchami,W.; Achterberg,E.P.; Agather,A.; Aguliar-Islas,A.; van Aken,H.M.; Andersen,M.; Archer,C.; Auro,M.; de Baar,H.J.; Baars,O.; Baker,A.R.; Bakker,K.; Basak,C.; Baskaran,M.; Bates,N.R.; Bauch,D.; van Beek,P.; Behrens,M.K.; Black,E.; Bluhm,K.; Bopp,L.; Bouman,H.; Bowman,K.; Bown,J.; Boyd,P.; Boye,M.; Boyle,E.A.; Branellec,P.; Bridgestock,L.; Brissebrat,G.; Browning,T.; Bruland,K.W.; Brumsack,H.-J.; Brzezinski,M.; Buck,C.S.; Buck,K.N.; Buesseler,K.; Bull,A.; Butler,E.; Cai,P.; Mor,P.C.; Cardinal,D.; Carlson,C.; Carrasco,G.; Casacuberta,N.; Casciotti,K.L.; Castrillejo,M.; Chamizo,E.; Chance,R.; Charette,M.A.; Chaves,J.E.; Cheng,H.; Chever,F.; Christl,M.; Church,T.M.; Closset,I.; Colman,A.; Conway,T.M.; Cossa,D.; Croot,P.; Cullen,J.T.; Cutter,G.A.; Daniels,C.; Dehairs,F.; Deng,F.; Dieu,H.T.; Duggan,B.; Dulaquais,G.; Dumousseaud,C.; Echegoyen-Sanz,Y.; Edwards,R.L.; Ellwood,M.; Fahrbach,E.; Fitzsimmons,J.N.; Russell Flegal,A.; Fleisher,M.Q.; van de Flierdt,T.; Frank,M.; Friedrich,J.; Fripiat,F.; Fröllje,H.; Galer,S.J.G.; Gamo,T.; Ganeshram,R.S.; Garcia-Orellana,J.; Garcia-Solsona,E.; Gault-Ringold,M.; George,E.; Gerringa,L.J.A.; Gilbert,M.; Godoy,J.M.; Goldstein,S.L.; Gonzalez,S.R.; Grissom,K.; Hammerschmidt,C.; Hartman,A.; Hassler,C.S.; Hathorne,E.C.; Hatta,M.; Hawco,N.; Hayes,C.T.; Heimbürger,L.-E.; Helgoe,J.; Heller,M.; Henderson,G.M.; Henderson,P.B.; van Heuven,S.; Ho,P.; Horner,T.J.; Hsieh,Y.-T.; Huang,K.-F.; Humphreys,M.P.; Isshiki,K.; Jacquot,J.E.; Janssen,D.J.; Jenkins,W.J.; John,S.; Jones,E.M.; Jones,J.L.; Kadko,D.C.; Kayser,R.; Kenna,T.C.; Khondoker,R.; Kim,T.; Kipp,L.; Klar,J.K.; Klunder,M.; Kretschmer,S.; Kumamoto,Y.; Laan,P.; Labatut,M.; Lacan,F.; Lam,P.J.; Lambelet,M.; Lamborg,C.H.; Le Moigne,F.A.C.; Le Roy,E.; Lechtenfeld,O.J.; Lee,J.-M.; Lherminier,P.; Little,S.; López-Lora,M.; Lu,Y.; Masque,P.; Mawji,E.; Mcclain,C.R.; Measures,C.; Mehic,S.; Barraqueta,J.-L.M.; van der Merwe,P.; Middag,R.; Mieruch,S.; Milne,A.; Minami,T.; Moffett,J.W.; Moncoiffe,G.; Moore,W.S.; Morris,P.J.; Morton,P.L.; Nakaguchi,Y.; Nakayama,N.; Niedermiller,J.; Nishioka,J.; Nishiuchi,A.; Noble,A.; Obata,H.; Ober,S.; Ohnemus,D.C.; van Ooijen,J.; O'Sullivan,J.; Owens,S.; Pahnke,K.; Paul,M.; Pavia,F.; Pena,L.D.; Peters,B.; Planchon,F.; Planquette,H.; Pradoux,C.; Puigcorbé,V.; Quay,P.; Queroue,F.; Radic,A.; Rauschenberg,S.; Rehkämper,M.; Rember,R.; Remenyi,T.; Resing,J.A.; Rickli,J.; Rigaud,S.; Rijkenberg,M.J.A.; Rintoul,S.; Robinson,L.F.; Roca-Martí,M.; Rodellas,V.; Roeske,T.; Rolison,J.M.; Rosenberg,M.; Roshan,S.; Rutgers van der Loeff,M.M.; Ryabenko,E.; Saito,M.A.; Salt,L.A.; Sanial,V.; Sarthou,G.; Schallenberg,C.; Schauer,U.; Scher,H.; Schlosser,C.; Schnetger,B.; Scott,P.; Sedwick,P.N.; Semiletov,I.; Shelley,R.; Sherrell,R.M.; Shiller,A.M.; Sigman,D.M.; Singh,S.K.; Slagter,H.A.; Slater,E.; Smethie,W.M.; Snaith,H.; Sohrin,Y.; Sohst,B.; Sonke,J.E.; Speich,S.; Steinfeldt,R.; Stewart,G.; Stichel,T.; Stirling,C.H.; Stutsman,J.; Swarr,G.J.; Swift,J.H.; Thomas,A.; Thorne,K.; Till,C.P.; Till,R.; Townsend,A.T.; Townsend,E.; Tuerena,R.; Twining,B.S.; Vance,D.; Velazquez,S.; Venchiarutti,C.; Villa-Alfageme,M.; Vivancos,S.M.; Voelker,A.H.L.; Wake,B.; Warner,M.J.; Watson,R.; van Weerlee,E.; Alexandra Weigand,M.; Weinstein,Y.; Weiss,D.; Wisotzki,A.; Woodward,E.M.S.; Wu,J.; Wu,Y.; Wuttig,K.; Wyatt,N.; Xiang,Y.; Xie,R.C.; Xue,Z.; Yoshikawa,H.; Zhang,J.; Zhang,P.; Zhao,Y.; Zheng,L.; Zheng,X.-Y.; Zieringer,M.; Zimmer,L.A.; Ziveri,P.; Zunino,P.; Zurbrick,C. (2018). The GEOTRACES Intermediate Data Product 2017. Chem. Geol. 493: 210-223.
  • 2017
    De Baar, H.J.W.; van Heuven, S.M.A.C.; Abouchami, W.; Xue, Z.; Galer, S.J.G.; Rehkämper, M.; Middag, R.; van Ooijen, J. (2017). Interactions of dissolved CO2 with cadmium isotopes in the Southern Ocean. Mar. Chem. 195: 105-121.
    de Baar, H.J.W; van Heuven, S.; Middag, R. (2017). Ocean Biochemical Cycling and Trace Elements, in: Encyclopedia of Geochemistry. Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series, : pp. 1-21; Chapter 356-1.
    de Baar, H.J.W; van Heuven, S.M.A.C.; Middag, R. (2017). Ocean Salinity, Major Elements, and Thermohaline Circulation, in: Encyclopedia of Geochemistry. Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series, : pp. 1-7; Chapter 120-1.
    Rolison, J.M.; Stirling, C.H.; Middag, R.; Rijkenberg, M.J.A. (2017). Uranium stable isotope fractionation in the Black Sea: Modern calibration of the 238U/235U paleo-redox proxy. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 203: 69–88.
    van Hulten, M.; Middag, R.; Dutay, J.-C.; de Baar, H.; Roy-Barman, M.; Gehlen, M.; Tagliabue, A.; Sterl, A. (2017). Manganese in the west Atlantic Ocean in the context of the first global ocean circulation model of manganese. Biogeosciences 14: 1123-1152.
    Vance, D.; Little, S.H.; de Souza, G.F.; Khatiwala, S.; Middag, R. (2017). Silicon and zinc biogeochemical cycles coupled through the Southern Ocean. Nature Geoscience 10(3): 202-206.
  • 2015
    Middag, R.; Séférian, R.; Conway, T.M.; John, S.G.; Bruland, K.W.; de Baar, H.J.W. (2015). Intercomparison of dissolved trace elements at the Bermuda Atlantic Time Series station. Mar. Chem. 177(Part 3): 476–489.
    Middag, R.; van Hulten, M.M.P.; van Aken, H.M.; Rijkenberg, M.J.A.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; Laan, P.; de Baar, H.J.W. (2015). Dissolved aluminium in the ocean conveyor of theWest Atlantic Ocean: Effects of the biological cycle, scavenging, sediment resuspension and hydrography. Mar. Chem. 177(Part 1): 69–86.
    Rijkenberg, M.J.; de Baar, H.J.W.; Bakker, K.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; Keijzer, E.; Laan, M.; Laan, P.; Middag, R.; Ober, S.; van Ooijen, J.; Ossebaar, S.; van Weerlee, E.M.; Smit, M. (2015). “PRISTINE”, a new high volume sampler for ultraclean sampling of trace metals and isotopes. Mar. Chem. 177(Part 3): 501–509.
  • 2014
    Abouchami, W.; Galer, S.J.G.; de Baar, H.J.W.; Middag, R.; Vance, D.; Zhao, Y.; Klunder, M.; Mezger, K.; Feldmann, H.; Andreae, M.O. (2014). Biogeochemical cycling of cadmium isotopes in the Southern Ocean along the Zero Meridian. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 127: 348-367.
    Dulaquais, G.; Boye, M.; Middag, R.; Owens, S.; Puigcorbe, V.; Buesseler, K.; Masqué, P.; De Baar, H.J.W.; Carton, X. (2014). Contrasting biogeochemical cycles of cobalt in the surface western Atlantic Ocean. Global Biogeochem. Cycles 28(12): 1387-1412.
    Klunder, M.B.; Laan, P.; de Baar, H.J.W.; Middag, R.; Neven, I.; Van Ooijen, J. (2014). Dissolved Fe across the Weddell Sea and Drake Passage: impact of DFe on nutrient uptake. Biogeosciences 11(3): 651-669.
    Rijkenberg, M.J.A.; Middag, R.; Laan, P.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; van Aken, H.M.; Schoemann, V.; de Jong, J.T.; de Baar, H.J.W. (2014). The Distribution of Dissolved Iron in the West Atlantic Ocean. PLoS One 9(6): e101323 1-14.
    van Hulten, M.M.P.; Sterl, A.; Middag, R.; de Baar, H.J.W.; Gehlen, M.; Dutay, J.-C.; Tagliabue, A. (2014). On the effects of circulation, sediment resuspension and biological incorporation by diatoms in an ocean model of aluminium. Biogeosciences 11: 3757-3779.
  • 2013
    Middag, R.; de Baar, H.J.W.; Klunder, M.B.; Laan, P. (2013). Fluxes of dissolved aluminum and manganese to the Weddell Sea and indications for manganese co-limitation. Limnol. Oceanogr. 58(1): 287-300.
    van Hulten, M.M.P.; Sterl, A.; Tagliabue, A.; Dutay, J.-C.; Gehlen, M.; de Baar, H.J.W.; Middag, R. (2013). Aluminium in an ocean general circulation model compared with the West Atlantic Geotraces cruises. J. Mar. Syst. 126: 3-23.
    Xue, Z.; Rehkämper, M.; Horner, T.J.; Abouchami, W.; Middag, R.; van de Flierd, T. ; de Baar, H.J.W. (2013). Cadmium isotope variations in the Southern Ocean. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 382: 161–172.
  • 2012
    Klunder, M.B.; Laan, P.; Middag, R.; de Baar, H.J.W.; Bakker, K. (2012). Dissolved iron in the Arctic Ocean: Important role of hydrothermal sources, shelf input and scavenging removal. J. Geophys. Res. 117.
    Middag, R.; de Baar, H.J.W.; Laan, P.; Huhn, O. (2012). The effects of continental margins and water mass circulation on the distribution of dissolved aluminum and manganese in Drake Passage. J. Geophys. Res. 117.
    Roeske, T.; Rutgers van der Loeff, M.; Middag, R.; Bakker, K. (2012). Deep water circulation and composition in the Arctic Ocean by dissolved barium, aluminium and silicate. Mar. Chem. 132: 56-67.
  • 2011
    Abouchami, W.; Galer, S.J.G.; de Baar, H.J.W.; Alderkamp, A.C.; Middag, R.; Laan, P.; Feldmann, H.; Andreae, M.O. (2011). Modulation of the Southern Ocean cadmium isotope signature by ocean circulation and primary productivity. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 305(1-2): 83-91.
    Klunder, M.B.; Laan, P.; Middag, R.; de Baar, H.J.W.; van Ooijen, J.C. (2011). Dissolved iron in the Southern Ocean (Atlantic sector). Deep-Sea Res., Part 2, Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 58(25-26): 2678-2694.
    Middag, R.; de Baar, H.J.W.; Laan, P.; Cai, P.H.; van Ooijen, J.C. (2011). Dissolved manganese in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. Deep-Sea Res., Part 2, Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 58(25-26): 2661-2677.
    Middag, R.; de Baar, H.J.W.; Laan, P.; Klunder, M.B. (2011). Fluvial and hydrothermal input of manganese into the Arctic Ocean. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 75(9): 2393-2408.
    Middag, R.; van Slooten, C.; de Baar, H.J.W.; Laan, P. (2011). Dissolved aluminium in the Southern Ocean. Deep-Sea Res., Part 2, Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 58(25-26): 2647-2660.
    Rutgers van der Loeff, M.; Cai, P.H.H.; Stimac, I.; Bracher, A.; Middag, R.; Klunder, M.B.; van Heuven, S.M.A.C. (2011). 234Th in surface waters: Distribution of particle export flux across the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and in the Weddell Sea during the GEOTRACES expedition ZERO and DRAKE. Deep-Sea Res., Part 2, Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 58(25-26): 2749-2766.

Linked projects

NoSE_North Sea Atlantic Exchange
Matthew Humphreys
Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research
Project duration
1 Oct 2022 - 31 Dec 2027
FePhyrus_Iron limitation and viral lysis, phytoplankton caught between a rock and a hard place
Rob Middag
Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research
Project duration
1 May 2017 - 30 Apr 2021
Trace metals & the Artic-Atlantic gateway in a changing world
Rob Middag
Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research - Veni/Vidi/Vici
Project duration
15 Nov 2018 - 31 Oct 2023