Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research
Phone number
+31 (0)113 57 7436
  • Sclerochronology, Reading the growth lines in shells
  • North Sea Marine Benthos -process studies
  • Valve gape recording of bivalves.
  • In situ experimentation with lander technology
  • development of measurement tools/equipment

Dr. Rob Witbaard


Long-lived shellfish as indicator for seafloor processes

Ecologist Rob Witbaard studies the seafloor ecosystems of the North Sea. ‘These include the structure of the seafloor, the animals that live in it and the processes it is influenced by. I try to understand how the system works; how species influence each other, but also what the influences are of human activities, such as commercial fishing that disrupts the seabed, large-scale construction of wind parks and beach nourishments. All of these have an effect on the seafloor and seafloor life.’

Long-lived shellfish

‘I use the ocean quahog to investigate the influence of the climate on the seafloor ecosystem. The ocean quahog is a shellfish that can become extremely old. Ages exceeding 100 years are quite normal. The oldest known specimen was 507 years old and was found by English colleagues off the coast of Iceland. Just like a tree, an ocean quahog has growth rings. The width and chemical composition of these growth rings allow you to look back in time. In my work, it is important to understand aspects such as the role of temperature and food supply on the growth of the ocean quahog.’

Forty million measurements

‘Between 2014 and 2018, with a team of international colleagues, we followed sixteen different ocean quahogs over a period of five years by measuring every minute how wide their valves were opened as measure for their feeding activity. We used an instrument developed by NIOZ. We subsequently analysed the data containing more than 40 million measurements to examine which factor, food or temperature, is the most important for the ocean quahog’s activity.’

Ideal model

‘The ocean quahog occurs in all temperate shelf seas of the North Atlantic Ocean, as long as the water temperature remains between 0°C and 16°C. It is a filter feeder: it filters food particles directly out of the water column. This makes the ocean quahog an attractive research species. Examining the growth lines of the shell provides indirect insight into the processes in the water column that determine algal production, such as ocean currents, weather conditions and climate. Its potentially extremely high age makes the ocean quahog an ideal model to investigate the seafloor ecosystem in the broader sense.’

Read more +

Research interests

I was trained as a limnologist at the University of Amsterdam between 1982 and 1988. During that study I became involved in work at the open North Sea and found this so fascinating that "workwise", I never left the open Sea. The challenge of sampling at unknown places and the technological challenges connected to in-situ measurements hooked me to this kind of research. Up to now I have worked from coastal subtidal areas to full oceanic depths. The emphasis of the work lies mainly in the processes affecting and structuring the benthic communities and experimental autecological studies.  In respect to the latter I have special interests in the technological challenges related to in situ experimentation.

I started with a study on the effects of bioturbation by the burrowing mud shrimp Callianassa subterranea . A common species in the muddy bottoms of the central North Sea. I managed to make a quantification of burrow volume and surface area on basis of resin casts of the burrows.

Later I got involved in the age determination and longevity of bivalves with special emphasis on the ocean quahog (Arctica islandica) which resulted in a Ph.D titled "Tree of the Sea".  It explored the use of internal shell growth lines as means to reconstruct marine environmental/climatological change and was the first published long time series (>100 years) based on the growth lines of a bivalve. Various other applications of the growth lines have been demonstrated among which the reconstruction of fishing intensity on basis of scars in shells.

The study  generated awareness about the vulnerability of large long living molluscs and their use as environmental health indicators for benthic ecosystems. Within OSPAR and the EU water frame work, ocean quahogs (Arctica islandica)  are nowadays seen as an important indicator species for sea floor integrity. 

Since my Ph.D I kept on working on the ecology of the ocean quahog. At the moment I am doing an behavioural study in northern Norway. With a so called "Valve-Gape-Monitor". Withinf the Marie Curie Trainings Network (Aramacc) the filtration response of 16 individuals at a minute resolution since february 2014 is followed.  This study gives insight in the seasonality and the important environmental factors which control the behavior.

Besides work on the growth of bivalves have I been involved in various EU "deep - sea" projects, measuring in situ fluxes and oxygen consumption up to depths of 4800 meter at the Porcupine abyssal plain. Recently I participated in two cruises, one to the Black Sea and one to the Baltic. Last summer we used the equipment in the Whithard Canyon south of Ireland. The in situ lander technique is also used in shallower water such as the North Sea where the technique was used to study the ecosystem effects of beamtrawling versus puls-wing trawling in June 2017. 

Linked news

Tuesday 11 July 2023
How does benthic life develop in an abandoned sand extraction pit?
How does benthic life develop in sand extraction sites, in which sand up to 6 metres has been excavated? This was investigated by the Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ) and Wageningen Marine Research (WMR) in 2022 for the Sand from…
Wednesday 08 December 2021
Baleens read like a whale's history book
By chemically analyzing sequential samples from the baleen of dead whales, it is possible to read not only the history of the diet, but also the migration route of the animals. In the latest issue of the journal Royal Society Open Science, NIOZ…
Thursday 11 November 2021
Oceans of Energy will build 1 MW offshore solar off the coast of Scheveningen
Scheveningen, The Netherlands; November 11, 2021 - Today Oceans of Energy and partners & observers announce the upscaling of the world's first offshore solar farm system 20 times and expand it to 1 MW (MegaWatt). In the coming years, the company…
Monday 21 October 2019
Zandspiering; onbekend maakt onbemind
Eind oktober stappen onderzoekers van NIOZ, Naturalis en Wageningen Marine Research aan boord van het onderzoeksschip de Pelagia. Wat ze gemeen hebben is een grote interesse in het leven in en op de bodem van de Noordzee; van mollusken als het…
Thursday 11 January 2018
NIOZ wetenschappers gaan leeftijd van reuzenkreeft ‘Louis’ achterhalen
Hoe oud kunnen kreeften worden? Met de vondst van reuzenkreeft ‘Louis’, wiens leeftijd op 80 jaar wordt geschat, is die vraag weer actueel. Wetenschappelijk onderzoek naar de leeftijd van kreeftachtigen staat nog in de kinderschoenen, terwijl het…

Linked blogs

Monday 19 June 2023
ACTNOW Expedition June 2023
The 10 day cruise to sample the Doggers bank is organised in the framework of the EU project ACTNOW*. The aim is to collect data on different elements of the food web simultaneously: from phytoplankton (the small “plants” in the sea) via grazing…
Tuesday 10 May 2022
TRAILS Spring 2022
The coast of the Wadden Sea islands is dynamic by nature: beaches change shape and size by the forces of wind and waves. In the past, villages on the islands were threatened by floods and the Wadden islands migrated. Nowaday, we try to keep the…
Thursday 04 March 2021
NIOZ@SEA | North Sea Expedition 1-12 March 2021 'Sandeels & Seals'
Voor de derde keer vaart expeditieleider Rob Witbaard (NIOZ) uit om de relatie tussen het bodemleven (benthos) en de veranderingen in de visserij te onderzoeken. Tijdens de eerdere expedities is gebruik gemaakt van het NIOZ schip RV Pelagia, deze…
Wednesday 09 December 2020
NIOZ@SEA | North Sea Expedition 7-15 December 2020 'Sandeels & Seals'
Onderzoekers van het NIOZ en Wageningen Marine Research brengen aan boord van de RV Pelagia de bodemgemeenschappen ten noorden van de Waddeneilanden en de Noord-Hollandse kust in kaart.
Thursday 03 September 2020
ReViFES fieldwork 2020 | Investigating North Sea reefs services
Biogenic reefs are hard structures built by living organisms which form complex ecosystems and are accountable for several important ecological functions. In the North Sea, the most common bio-constructors include bivalves, such as oysters and…
Monday 21 October 2019
NIOZ@SEA | North Sea Expedition 22-29 October 2019 'Eels & Seals'
Deze week zijn onderzoekers van NIOZ, Naturalis en Wageningen Marine Research aan boord van het onderzoeksschip Pelagia. Wat ze gemeen hebben is een grote interesse in het leven in en op de bodem van de Noordzee; van mollusken als het…
Monday 06 November 2017
NIOZ@SEA DISCLOSE | Protecting vulnerable habitats in the North Sea
The North Sea is home to a diverse range of habitats and species, but at the same time it’s one of the most exploited sea regions in the world. Some of these habitats and species are under threat from this intensive exploitation. DISCLOSE studies how…
Thursday 26 October 2017
Similar as on land, sunlight is an essential ingredient of life in the seas: it heats up the water and is needed for the tiny algal cells in the water to grow. Sediment particles floating in the water block the light and therefore interfere with…
Tuesday 13 June 2017
NIOZ@Sea: North Sea expedition
Seven PhD students, three senior scientists, two assistants and the 12-headed Pelagia crew will embark on a scientific research cruise to the North Sea in the first two weeks of June.
Sunday 28 May 2017
NIOZ@Sea: Whittard Canyon Expedition
The unknown role of Submarine canyons – Pathways or sinks for Organic Carbon? Follow the blogs of NIOZ researchers aboard R.V. Pelagia as they cruise the Whittard Canyon complex situated in the Bay of Biscay.

NIOZ publications

  • 2023
    Brosset, C.; Höche, N.; Witbaard, R.; Nishida, K.; Shirai, K.; Mertz-Kraus, R.; Schöne, B.R. (2023). Sr/Ca in shells of laboratory-grown bivalves (Arctica islandica) serves as a proxy for water temperature – implications for (paleo)environmental research? Front. Mar. Sci. 10: 1279164.
    de Winter, N.J.; van Sikkeleras, S.; Goudsmit-Harzevoort, B.; Boer, W.; de Nooijer, L.; Reichart, G.-J.; Claeys, P.; Witbaard, R. (2023). Tracing timing of growth in cultured molluscs using strontium spiking. Front. Mar. Sci. 10: 1157929.
    Hubert, J.; van der Burg, A.D.; Witbaard, R.; Slabbekoorn, H. (2023). Separate and combined effects of boat noise and a live crab predator on mussel valve gape behavior. Behav. Ecol. 34(3): 495-505.
    Tonk, Linda; Witbaard, R.; van Dalen, P.; Cheng, C.; Kamermans, P. (2023). Applicability of the gape monitor to study flat oyster (Ostrea edulis) feeding behaviour. Aquat. Living Resour. 36: 6.
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    Witbaard, R.; Craeymeersch, J. (2023). Littekens op de zeebodem. Een onderzoek naar de faunistische effecten op lange termijn van diepe zandwinning voor de Nederlandse kust. NIOZ-rapport, 2023-01. NIOZ Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research: Den Burg. 42 pp.
  • 2022
    Bertolini, C.; Capelle, J.; Royer, E.; Milan, M.; Witbaard, R.; Bouma, T.J.; Pastres, R. (2022). Using a clustering algorithm to identify patterns of valve-gaping behaviour in mussels reared under different environmental conditions. Ecological Informatics 69: 101659.
    Clements, O.N.; Leurs, G.; Witbaard, R.; Pen, I.; Verkuil, Y.I.; Govers, L.L. (2022). Growth, maturity, and diet of the pearl whipray (Fontitrygon margaritella) from the Bijagós Archipelago, Guinea-Bissau. PeerJ 10: e12894.
    de Winter, N.J.; Witbaard, R.; Kocken, I.J.; Müller, I.A.; Guo, J.; Goudsmit, B.; Ziegler, M. (2022). Temperature dependence of clumped isotopes (∆47) in aragonite. Geophys. Res. Lett. 49(20): e2022GL099479.
    Hubert, J.; Booms, E.; Witbaard, R.; Slabbekoorn, H. (2022). Responsiveness and habituation to repeated sound exposures and pulse trains in blue mussels. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 547: 151668.
    Hubert, J.; Moens, R.; Witbaard, R.; Slabbekoorn, H. (2022). Acoustic disturbance in blue mussels: sound-induced valve closure varies with pulse train speed but does not affect phytoplankton clearance rate. ICES J. Mar. Sci./J. Cons. int. Explor. Mer 79(9): 2540-2551.
    Lenstra, W.K.; van Helmond, N.A.G.M.; Zygadlowska, O.M.; van Zummeren, R.; Witbaard, R.; Slomp, C.P. (2022). Sediments as a source of iron, manganese, cobalt and nickel to continental shelf waters (Louisiana, Gulf of Mexico). Front. Mar. Sci. 9: 811953.
  • 2021
    Bertolini, C.; Rubinetti, R.; Umgiesser, G.; Witbaard, R.; Bouma, T.J.; Rubino, A.; Pastres, R. (2021). How to cope in heterogeneous coastal environments: Spatio-temporally endogenous circadian rhythm of valve gaping by mussels. Sci. Total Environ. 768: 145085.
    Faasse, M.; Gheerardyn, H.; Witbaard, R.; Cuperus, J. (2021). First record of the rare crab Asthenognathus atlanticus Monod, 1933 (Crustacea: Brachyura: Varunidae) in the North Sea. Oceanological and Hydrobiological Studies 50(3): 352-358.
    Höche, N.; Walliser, E.O.; de Winter, N.J.; Witbaard, R.; Schöne, B.R. (2021). Temperature-induced microstructural changes in shells of laboratory-grown Arctica islandica (Bivalvia). PLoS One 16(2): e0247968.
    Riekenberg, P.M.; Camalich, J.; Svensson, E.; IJsseldijk, L.L.; Brasseur, S.M.; Witbaard, R.; Leopold, M.F.; Rebolledo, E.B.; Middelburg, J.J.; Van der Meer, M.T.J.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Schouten, S. (2021). Reconstructing the diet, trophic level and migration pattern of mysticete whales based on baleen isotopic composition. Royal Society Open Science 8(12): 210949.
  • 2020
    Castrillejo, M.; Witbaard, R.; Casacuberta, N.; Richardson, C.A.; Dekker, R.; Synal; Christl (2020). Unravelling 5 decades of anthropogenic 236U discharge from nuclear reprocessing plants. Sci. Total Environ. 717: 137094.
    Castrillejo, M.; Witbaard, R.; Richardson, C.A.; Dekker, R.; Welte, C.; Wacker, L.; Christl, M. (2020). Impact of nuclear fuel reprocessing on the temporal evolution of marine radiocarbon. Sci. Total Environ. 738: 139700.
    Fischer, F.; Brix, H.; Baschek, B.; Kraberg, A.; Brändel, M.; Cisewski, B.; Riethmüller, R.; Breitbach, G.; Möller, K.O.; Gattuso, J.P.; Alliouane, S.; van de Poll, W.H.; Witbaard, R. (2020). Operating cabled underwater observatories in rough shelf-sea environments: A technological challenge. Front. Mar. Sci. 7: article 551.
    Lenstra, W.K.; Hermans, M.; Séguret, M.J.M.; Witbaard, R.; Severmann, S.; Behrends, T; Slomp, C.P. (2021). Coastal hypoxia and eutrophication as key controls on benthic release and water column dynamics of iron and manganese. Limnol. Oceanogr. 66(3): 807-826.
    Lenstra, W.K.; Séguret, M.J.M.; Behrends, T.; Groeneveld, R.K.; Hermans, M.; Witbaard, R.; Slomp, C.P. (2020). Controls on the shuttling of manganese over the northwestern Black Sea shelf and its fate in the euxinic deep basin. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 273: 177-204.
    Witbaard, R. (2020). Biodiversiteit en abiotische metingen op de Slow Mill locatie off-shore Texel in 2019. NIOZ-rapport, 2020(06). NIOZ Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research: Yerseke. 36 pp.
    Witbaard, R. (2020). “Age” determination of European flat oysters from the Voordelta reef. NIOZ-rapport, 2020(01). NIOZ Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research: Yerseke.
    Witbaard, R. (2020). Biodiversiteit rondom de Slowmill in 2019. NIOZ-rapport, 2020(02). NIOZ Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research: Yerseke. 19 pp.
  • 2019
    Ballesta-Artero, I.; Augustine, S.; Witbaard, R.; Carroll, M.L.; Madelyn, M. J.; Wanamaker, A.D.; van der Meer, J. (2019). Energetica of the extremely long-living bivalve Arctica islandica based on a Dynamic Energy Budget model. J. Sea Res. 143: 173-182.
    Black, B.A.; Andersson, C.; Butler, P.G.; Carroll, M.L.; DeLong, K.L.; Reynolds, D.J.; Schöne, B.R.; Scourse, J.; van der Sleen, P.; Wanamaker, A.D.; Witbaard, R. (2019). The revolution of crossdating in marine palaeoecology and palaeoclimatology. Biol. Lett. 15(1): 20180665.
    Hermans, M.; Lenstra, W.K.; Hidalgo-Martinez, S.; van Helmond, N.A.G.M.; Witbaard, R.; Meysman, F.J.R.; Gonzalez, S; Slomp, C.P. (2019). Abundance and biogeochemical impact of cable bacteria in Baltic Sea sediments. Environ. Sci. Technol. 53(13): 7494-7503.
    Lenstra, W.K.; Hermans, M.; Séguret, M.J.M.; Witbaard, R.; Behrends, T.; Dijkstra, N.; van Helmond, N.A.G.M.; Kraal, P.; Laan, P.; Rijkenberg, M.J.A.; Severmann, S.; Teaca, A.; Slomp, C.P. (2019). The shelf-to-basin iron shuttle in the Black Sea revisited. Chem. Geol. 511: 314-341.
    Mienis, F.; Bouma, T.J.; Witbaard, R.; van Oevelen, D.; Duineveld, G.C.A. (2019). Experimental assessment of the effects of coldwater coral patches on water flow. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 609: 101-117.
    Tiano, J.C.; Witbaard, R.; Bergman, M.J.N.; van Rijswijk, P.; Tramper, A.; Van Oevelen, D.; Soetaert, K. (2019). Acute impacts of bottom trawl gears on benthic metabolism and nutrient cycling. ICES J. Mar. Sci./J. Cons. int. Explor. Mer 76(6): 1917–1930.
  • 2018
    Ballesta-Artero, I.; Zhao, L.; Milano, S.; Mertz-Kraus, R.; Schöne, B.R.; van der Meer, J.; Witbaard, R. (2018). Environmental and biological factors influencing trace elemental and microstructural properties of Arctica islandica shells. Sci. Total Environ. 645: 913-923.
    Jager, Z.; Witbaard, R.; Kroes, M. (2018). Impact of demersal & seine fisheries in the Natura 2000-area Cleaver Bank. NIOZ-rapport, 2018(3). NIOZ: Texel. 64 pp.
    Jager, Z.; Witbaard, R.; Kroes, M. (2018). Impact of demersal & seine fisheries in the North Sea areas Frisian Front and Central Oyster Grounds. NIOZ-rapport, 2018(6). NIOZ: Yerseke. 70 pp.
  • 2017
    Ballesta-Artero, I.; Janssen, R.; Van der Meer, J.; Witbaard, R. (2018). Interactive effects of temperature and food availability on the growth of Arctica islandica (Bivalvia) juveniles. Mar. Environ. Res. 133: 67-77.
    Ballesta-Artero, I.; Witbaard, R.; Carroll, M.L.; Van der Meer, J. (2017). Environmental factors regulating gaping activity of the bivalve Arctica islandica in Northern Norway. Mar. Biol. (Berl.) 164(5): 116.
    Milano, S.; Schöne, B.R.; Witbaard, R. (2017). Changes of shell microstructural characteristics of Cerastoderma edule (Bivalvia) — A novel proxy for water temperature. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 465: 395-406.
    van der Hout, C.M.; Witbaard, R.; Bergman, M.J.N.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; Rozemeijer, M.J.C.; Gerkema, T. (2017). The dynamics of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and chlorophyll- a from intratidal to annual time scales in a coastal turbidity maximum. J. Sea Res. 127: 105-118.
    Witbaard, R.; Bergman, M.J.N.; van Weerlee, E.M.; Duineveld, G.C.A. (2017). An estimation of the effects of Ensis directus on the transport and burial of silt in the near-shore Dutch coastal zone of the North Sea. J. Sea Res. 127: 95-104.
  • 2015
    Lindeboom, H.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.; Witbaard, R.; Slijkerman, D.; Kraan, M. (2015). Het ecologisch belang van het Friese Front. IMARES Wageningen Report, C137/15 A. IMARES Wageningen UR: Wageningen. 24 pp.
    van Kooten, T.; van Denderen, D.; Glorius, S.; van der Wal, J.T.; Witbaard, R.; Ruardij, P.; Lavaleye, M.; Slijkerman, D. (2015). An exploratory analysis of environmental conditions and trawling on species richness and benthic ecosystem structure in the Frisian Front and Central Oyster Grounds. IMARES Wageningen Report, C037/15. IMARES Wageningen UR: Wageningen. 47 pp.
    Witbaard, R.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; Bergman, M.J.N.; Witte, H. Y.; Groot, L.; Rozemeijer, M.J.C. (2015). The growth and dynamics of Ensis directus in the near-shore Dutch coastal zone of the North Sea. J. Sea Res. 95: 95–105.
  • 2013
    Cardoso, J.F.M.F.; Nieuwland, G.; Witbaard, R.; van der Veer, H.W.; Machado, J.P. (2013). Growth increment periodicity in the shell of the razor clam Ensis directus using stable isotopes as a method to validate age. Biogeosciences 10(7): 4741-4750.
    Cardoso, J.F.M.F.; Santos, S.; Witte, J.IJ.; Witbaard, R.; van der Veer, H.W.; Machado, J.P. (2013). Validation of the seasonality in growth lines in the shell of Macoma balthica using stable isotopes and trace elements. J. Sea Res. 82: 93-102.
    Hippler, D.; Witbaard, R.; van Aken, H.M.; Buhl, D.; Immenhauser, A. (2013). Exploring the calcium isotope signature of Arctica islandica as an environmental proxy using laboratory- and field-cultured specimens. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 373: 75-87.
    Witbaard, R.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; Bergman, M.J.N. (2013). The final report on the growth and dynamics of Ensis directus in the near coastal zone off Egmond, in relation to environmental conditions in 2011-2012. NIOZ-rapport, 2013(2). NIOZ: Texel. 79 pp.
    Witbaard, R.; Lavaleye, M.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; Bergman, M.J.N. (2013). Atlas of the megabenthos (incl. small fish) on the Dutch continental shelf of the North Sea. NIOZ-rapport, 2013(4). NIOZ: Texel. 221 pp.
  • 2012
    Duineveld, G.C.A.; Jeffreys, R.M.; Lavaleye, M.S.S.; Davies, A.J.; Bergman, M.J.N.; Watmough, T.; Witbaard, R. (2012). Spatial and tidal variation in food supply to shallow cold-water coral reefs of the Mingulay Reef complex (Outer Hebrides, Scotland). Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 444: 97-115.
    Leduc, D.; Rowden, A.A.; Bowden, D.A.; Nodder, S.D.; Probert, P.K.; Pilditch, C.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; Witbaard, R. (2012). Nematode beta diversity on the continental slope of New Zealand: spatial patterns and environmental drivers. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 454: 37-+.
    Leduc, D.; Rowden, A.A.; Probert, P.K.; Pilditch, C.A.; Nodder, S.D.; Vanreusel, A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; Witbaard, R. (2012). Further evidence for the effect of particle-size diversity on deep-sea benthic biodiversity. Deep-Sea Res., Part 1, Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 63: 164-169.
    Saraiva, S.; van der Meer, J.; Kooijman, S.A.L.M.; Witbaard, R.; Philippart, C.J.M.; Hippler, D.; Parker, R. (2012). Validation of a Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model for the blue mussel Mytilus edulis. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 463: 141-158.
    Scourse, J.D.; Wanamaker jr., A.D.; Weidman, C.; Heinemeier, J.; Reimer, P.J.; Butler, P.G.; Witbaard, R.; Richardson, C.A. (2012). The marine radiocarbon bomb pulse across the temperate North Atlantic: a compilation of Delta 14 Time Histories from Arctica Islandica Growth Increments. Radiocarbon 54(2): 165-186
    Witbaard, R.; Duineveld, G.; Bergman, M.J.N. (2012). Progress report on the study into the dynamics and growth of Ensis directus in the near coastal zone off Egmond, in relation to environmental conditions in 2011-. NIOZ-rapport, 2012(7). NIOZ: Texel. 58 pp.
  • 2011
    Cardoso, J.; Nieuwland, G.; Wijsman, J.; Witbaard, R.; van der Veer, H.W. (2011). Validation of a method for age determination in the razor clam Ensis directus. NIOZ-rapport, 2011(9). NIOZ: Texel. 33 pp.
    Jeffreys, R.M.; Lavaleye, M.S.S.; Bergman, M.J.N.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; Witbaard, R. (2011). Do abyssal scavengers use phytodetritus as a food resource? Video and biochemical evidence from the Atlantic and Mediterranean. Deep-Sea Res., Part 1, Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 58(4): 415-428.

Linked projects

UUNIOZ_Extreme midlatitude seasonality in a hothouse climate?
Rob Witbaard
Utrecht University
Project duration
1 Jan 2021 - 31 Dec 2025
ARAMACC algemeen
Rob Witbaard
European Community || Marie Curie
Project duration
1 Sep 2013 - 16 Mar 2018
UUNIOZ_Extreme midlatitude seasonality in a hothouse climate?
Rob Witbaard
Utrecht University
Project duration
1 Jan 2021 - 31 Dec 2025