Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research
Royal Netherlands
Institute for Sea Research
Phone number
+31 (0)113 57 7487
Research Leader
  • Biogeochemical cycles
  • Sediment-water interactions
  • Environmental modelling
  • Scientific computing
  • Open source software (R)

Prof. Dr. Karline Soetaert

Research Leader

Computer science reveals the significance of field observations

After studying zoology at Ghent University, biologist Karline Soetaert gradually specialised in computer science as well. ‘Unfortunately, the value of mathematics is still underestimated! I have learnt to appreciate computer science and mathematics as the instruments that enable us to really understand the data. We can collect as much data as we want, but we can usually only understand it after it has been inserted in mathematical models.’

Pulse fishing

‘One of the fields that I recently performed calculations on was the effect of fishing that disrupts the seabed. For some time now, Dutch fishermen have been allowed to fish using electrical fishing gear, the so-called pulse fishing. We examined the effects of the various types of fishing gear on the ploughing of the seabed and the release of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus from the sediment. The analyses of field observations reveal that fishing gear that moves just above the seabed and that uses electrodes to startle the fish is somewhat less harmful to the seabed than traditional fishing gear with heavy tickler chains.'

Wind farms and seaweed farms

‘We also perform calculations on the effects of mussel farming or seaweed farms in the Eastern Scheldt. Both have an effect on the spread of nutrients in the water. In combination with hydrodynamic models, geochemical and ecological models can reveal the effects of these activities on the delta ecosystem.’

‘The growing number of wind farms on the North Sea will also have an impact on the geochemistry and consequently on the biology of the sea. Mussels grow on the masts of wind turbines and filter particles from the water. Additionally, the functioning of the seabed will change due to the arrival of all those hard structures.’

From physics to ecology

‘In hydrodynamic models, we work with physical processes such as the flow of water. These models have already demonstrated their value. The next challenge is to capture ecological processes in mathematical terms that are just as reliable, so that we can also predict the effects of our interventions on the ecology in a responsible manner before we cause irreversible effects.

Read more +

Research interests

I am interested in the interplay between physics, ecology, and biogeochemistry in the marine environment. I have worked on many topics, including deepsea nematodes, estuarine zooplankton, estuarine biogeochemistry, early diagenesis, benthic and pelagic foodwebs, environmental modelling, software development and differential equations. Usually there is some computational aspect involved in my work -this may be in the form of mechanistic (ecosystem) models, or some other number-crunching procedure that involves computers and programming.  Indeed, my favorite working spot is behind my computer, although the occasional field work definitely has its charm!

Research statement

I am a firm believer of open, transparent and reusable science, which –in my view- should include documenting the entire chain of research, from data up to the publication. This involves sharing also the raw data and the software and scripts that compute on these data.

Open science starts with open source software, so for more than 10 years, I have contributed to the open source software community, creating around 20 R-packages that are available on CRAN. To make the every-day scientific data analysis or modelling process open and reproducible, I use R with markdown – this creates documents that contain the programming codes and the output they generate (a concept known as literate programming).

Short CV

I hold a master degree in Zoology (1983), a master in Computer Sciences (1985) and a PhD in biology (1988), all from Ghent University. I teach environmental modelling at the University of Ghent, for the first-year master “Global Change Biology” and for the first-year master “Oceans and Lakes”.  I am professor in marine ecosystem modelling at the Geosciences department at Utrecht University.

I have written in the order of 200 scientific publications, 20 software packages and 2 books. A list of my scientific output/achievements can be downloaded here.

Selfie taken after the Northsea Cruise, June 2017, with the RV Pelagia.


Here you can download some courses that introduce you into the fine art of R-programming and modelling.


My job is not my only hobby! I play the cello (learnt this as an adult), and used to play the clarinet (as a child). In 2016 I started playing the viola. Bach is my favorite composer, Massive Attack my favorite modern band.

I enjoy my medium-large, wild and natural garden, and like to spend time on my mountain bike – for sports and because it takes me to some wonderful places.

Linked news

Wednesday 24 April 2019
NIOZ North Sea expeditions 2019: Three Pelagia cruises to study the carrying capacity of the North Sea
On May 8th the first of three North Sea cruises to be held in 2019 under the flag of the NIOZ North Sea Research Centre (NIOZ-NSRC) has sailed off from Texel to investigate the North Sea. Each cruise lasts 2 to 3 weeks and will follow a different…
Tuesday 23 April 2019
Research on pulse trawling continues: both trawling methods affect oxygen and nutrients in seabed
The European Parliament has decided to ban pulse fishing from 1 July 2021, however, the research on the impact of pulse trawling versus beam trawling continues. Pulse trawling was developed as an alternative to beam trawling as it uses less fuel and…
Friday 02 December 2016
Good things come from above for deep-sea coral reefs
Deep-sea coral reefs grow in the oceans at great depths in the dark. They can be found around the peaks of limestone mounds rising from the seafloor up to hundreds of meters. The corals produce these limestone mounds themselves: they consist of dead…

Linked blogs

Tuesday 02 October 2018
NIOZ@SEA | Ecologisch onderzoek in de Nederlandse delta’s
De ecosystemen in de Oosterschelde, Grevelingen en Haringvliet zijn aan het veranderen door de invloed van onze Deltawerken, maar ook door klimaatverandering. In de Oosterschelde verdrinken de zandplaten langzaam door zandhonger, de bodem in het…
Thursday 26 October 2017
Similar as on land, sunlight is an essential ingredient of life in the seas: it heats up the water and is needed for the tiny algal cells in the water to grow. Sediment particles floating in the water block the light and therefore interfere with…
Tuesday 13 June 2017
NIOZ@Sea: North Sea expedition
Seven PhD students, three senior scientists, two assistants and the 12-headed Pelagia crew will embark on a scientific research cruise to the North Sea in the first two weeks of June.

NIOZ publications

  • 2022
    Jiang, L,; Blommaert, L.; Jansen, H.M.; Broch, O.J.; Timmermans, K.R.; Soetaert, K. (2022). Carrying capacity of Saccharina latissima cultivation in a Dutch coastal bay: a modelling assessment. ICES J. Mar. Sci./J. Cons. int. Explor. Mer 79(3): 709-721.
    van Oevelen, D.; Soetaert, K.; Peperzak, L.; Blauw, A.; Stolte, W.; Dijkman, N.; Rijkeboer, M. (2022). Monitoringsplan voor meerjarige monitoring fytoplanktonsamenstelling en primaire productie.ID4 MONS no-regret actie primaire productie. NIOZ Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research: Yerseke. 39 pp.
  • 2021
    Ait Ballagh, F.E.; Rabouille, C.; Andrieux-Loyer, F.; Soetaert, K.; Lansard, B.; Bombled, B.; Monvoisin, G.; Elkalay, K.; Khalil, K. (2021). Spatial variability of organic matter and phosphorus cycling in Rhône River prodelta sediments (NW Mediterranean Sea, France): a model-data approach. Est. Coast. 44: 1765-1789.
    Cheng, C.; Borsje, B.W.; Beauchard, O.; O'Flynn, S.; Ysebaert, T.; Soetaert, K. (2021). Small‐scale macrobenthic community structure along asymmetrical sand waves in an underwater seascape. Mar. Ecol. (Berl.) 42(3): e12657.
    Cheng, C.; de Smit, J.C.; Fivash, G.S.; Hulscher, S.J.M.H.; Borsje, B.; Soetaert, K. (2021). Sediment shell-content diminishes current-driven sand ripple development and migration. Earth Surface Dynamics 9(5): 1335-1346.
    De Borger, E.; Braeckman, U.; Soetaert, K. (2021). Rapid organic matter cycling in North Sea sediments. Cont. Shelf Res. 214: 104327.
    De Borger, E.; Ivanov, E.; Capet, A.; Braeckman, U.; Vanaverbeke, J.; Grégoire, M.; Soetaert, K. (2021). Offshore windfarm footprint of sediment organic matter mineralization processes. Front. Mar. Sci. 8: 632243.
    De Borger, E.; Tiano, J.; Braeckman, U.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.; Soetaert, K. (2021). Impact of bottom trawling on sediment biogeochemistry: a modelling approach. Biogeosciences 18: 2539–2557.
    de Kluijver, A.; Bart, M.C.; van Oevelen, D.; de Goeij, J.M.; Leys, S.P.; Maier, S.R.; Maldonado, M.; Soetaert, K.; Verbiest, S.; Middelburg, J.J. (2021). An integrative model of carbon and nitrogen metabolism in a common deep-sea sponge (Geodia barretti). Front. Mar. Sci. 7: 596251.
    Fang, X.; Cozzoli, F.; Smolders, S.; Knights, A.; Moens, T.; Soetaert, K.; Van Colen, C. (2021). Hindcasting ecosystem functioning change in an anthropogenized estuary: Implications for an era of global change. Front. Mar. Sci. 8: 747883.
    Fang, X.; Moens, T.; Knights, A.; Soetaert, K.; Van Colen, C. (2021). Allometric scaling of faunal-mediated ecosystem functioning: A case study on two bioturbators in contrasting sediments. Est., Coast. and Shelf Sci. 254: 107323.
    Fischer, F.C.; Hiki, K.; Soetaert, K.; Endo, S. (2021). Mind the exposure gaps—modeling chemical transport in sediment toxicity tests. Environ. Sci. Technol. 55(17): 11885-11893.
    Glatzel, T.; Herndl, G. (2021). Recognizing the complexity of soil organic carbon dynamics in vegetated coastal habitats. Glob. Chang. Biol. 27(1): 3-4.
    Ivanov, E.; Capet, A.; De Borger, E.; Degraer, S.; Delhez, E.; Soetaert, K.; Vanaverbeke, J.; Grégoire, M. (2021). Offshore wind farm footprint on organic and mineral particle flux to the bottom. Front. Mar. Sci. 8: 631799.
    Maier, S.R.; Mienis, F.; de Froe, E.; Soetaert, K.; Lavaleye, M.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; Beauchard, O.; van der Kaaden, A.-S.; Koch, B.P.; van Oevelen, D. (2021). Reef communities associated with ‘dead’ cold-water coral framework drive resource retention and recycling in the deep sea. Deep-Sea Res., Part 1, Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 175: 103574.
    Meyer, M.F.; Ladwig, R.; Mesman, J.P.; Oleksy, I.A.; Barbosa, C.C.; Cawley, K.M.; Cramer, A.N.; Feldbauer, J.; Tran, P.Q.; Zwart, J.A.; López Moreira M., G.A.; Shikhani, M.; Gurung, D.; Hensley, R.T.; Matta, E.; McClure, R.P.; Petzoldt, T.; Sánchez‐López, N.; Soetaert, K.; Thomas, M.K.; Topp, S.N.; Yang, X. (2021). The AEMON‐J "Hacking Limnology” workshop series & virtual summit: Incorporating data science and open science in aquatic research. Limnology and Oceanography Bulletin 30(4): 140-143.
    Poiesz, S.S.H.; Witte, J.IJ.; van der Meer, M.T.J.; van der Veer, H.W.; Soetaert, K. (2021). Trophic structure and resource utilization of the coastal fish community in the western Wadden Sea: evidence from stable isotope data analysis. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 677: 115-128.
    Seepma, S.Y.M.H.; Ruiz-Hernandez, S.E.; Nehrke, G.; Soetaert, K.; Philipse, A.P.; Kuipers, B.W.M.; Wolthers, M. (2021). Controlling CaCO3 Particle Size with {Ca2+}:{CO32–} Ratios in Aqueous Environments. Crystal Growth & Design 21(3): 1576-1590.
    Stratmann, T.; Soetaert, K.; Kersken, D.; van Oevelen, D. (2021). Polymetallic nodules are essential for food-web integrity of a prospective deep-seabed mining area in Pacific abyssal plains. NPG Scientific Reports 11(1): 12238.
    Tiano, J.C.; De Borger, E.; O'Flynn, S.; Cheng, C.; van Oevelen, D.; Soetaert, K. (2021). Physical and electrical disturbance experiments uncover potential bottom fishing impacts on benthic ecosystem functioning. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 545: 151628.
    Toussaint, E.; De Borger, E.; Braeckman, U.; De Backer, A.; Soetaert, K.; Vanaverbeke, J. (2021). Faunal and environmental drivers of carbon and nitrogen cycling along a permeability gradient in shallow North Sea sediments. Sci. Total Environ. 767: 144994.
    van der Kaaden, A.-S.; Mohn, C.; Gerkema, T.; Maier, S.R.; de Froe, E.; van de Koppel, J.; Rietkerk, M.; Soetaert, K.; van Oevelen, D. (2021). Feedbacks between hydrodynamics and cold-water coral mound development. Deep-Sea Res., Part 1, Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 178: 103641.
    van der Molen, J.; Soetaert, K. (2021). Potential ecosystem effects of large upscaling of offshore wind in the North Sea: Recommendations for further work. NIOZ-rapport, 2021(02). NIOZ Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research: Texel. 13 pp.
    van Duren, L.A.; Zijl, F.; van Kessel, T.; van Zelst, V.T.M.; Vilmin, L.M.; van der Meer, J.; Aarts, G.M; van der Molen, J.; Soetaert, K.; Minns, A.W. (2021). Ecosystem effects of large upscaling of offshore wind on the North Sea - Synthesis report. Deltares: [s.l.]. 42 pp.
    Webb, A.E.; de Bakker, D.M.; Soetaert, K.; da Costa, T.; van Heuven, S.; van Duyl, F.C.; Reichart, G.-J.; de Nooijer, L.J. (2021). Quantifying functional consequences of habitat degradation on a Caribbean coral reef. Biogeosciences 18(24): 6501-6516.
    Weber, S.B.; Richardson, A.J.; Brown, J.; Bolton, M.; Clark, B.L.; Godley, B.J.; Leat, E.; Oppel, S.; Shearer, L.; Soetaert, K.E.R.; Weber, N.; Broderick, A.C. (2021). Direct evidence of a prey depletion “halo” surrounding a pelagic predator colony. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 118(28): e2101325118.
  • 2020
    Ait Ballagh; Rabouille, C.; Andrieux-Loyer; Soetaert, K.; Elkalay, K.; Khalil (2020). Spatio-temporal dynamics of sedimentary phosphorus along two temperate eutrophic estuaries: A data-modelling approach. Cont. Shelf Res. 193: 104037.
    Cheng, C.; Soetaert, K.; Borsje, B.W. (2020). Sediment characteristics over asymmetrical tidal sand waves in the Dutch North Sea. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 8(6): 409.
    De Borger, E.; Tiano, J.C.; Braeckman, U.; Ysebaert, T.; Soetaert, K. (2020). Biological and biogeochemical methods for estimating bioirrigation: a case study in the Oosterschelde estuary. Biogeosciences 17(6): 1701-1715.
    de Jonge, D.S.W.; Stratmann, T.; Lins, L.; Vanreusel, A.; Purser, A.; Marcon, Y.; Rodrigues, C.F.; Ravara, A.; Esquete, P.; Cunha, M.R.; Simon-Lledó, E.; van Breugel, P.; Sweetman, A.K.; Soetaert, K.; van Oevelen, D. (2020). Abyssal food-web model indicates faunal carbon flow recovery and impaired microbial loop 26 years after a sediment disturbance experiment. Prog. Oceanogr. 189: 102446.
    Ivanov, E.; Capet, A.; Barth, A.; Delhez, E.J.M.; Soetaert, K.; Grégoire, M. (2020). Hydrodynamic variability in the Southern Bight of the North Sea in response to typical atmospheric and tidal regimes. Benefit of using a high resolution model. Ocean Modelling 154: 101682.
    Ivanov, E.; Capet, A.; Barth, A.; Delhez, E.J.M.; Soetaert, K.; Gregoire, M. (2020). Assessment and optimization of the impact of the future Belgian offshore wind farms on the bottom fauna using numerical modelling, in: Mees, J. et al. Book of abstracts – VLIZ Marine Science Day. Oostende, Belgium, 18 March 2020. VLIZ Special Publication, 84: pp. 59
    Jiang, L,; Gerkema, T.; Kromkamp, J.; van der Wal, D.; Carrasco de la Cruz, P.M.; Soetaert, K. (2020). Drivers of the spatial phytoplankton gradient in estuarine–coastal systems: generic implications of a case study in a Dutch tidal bay. Biogeosciences 17(16): 4135-4152.
    Jiang, L.; Gerkema, T.; Idier, D.; Slangen, A.; Soetaert, K. (2020). Effects of sea-level rise on tides and sediment dynamics in a Dutch tidal bay. Ocean Sci. 16: 307-321.
    Luciano, G.; Soetaert, K.; Svoboda, R. (2020). Simulation and non-linear optimization of Šesták-Berggren kinetics. Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids 550: 120391.
    Mestdagh, S.; Fang, X.; Soetaert, K.; Ysebaert, T.; Moens, T.; Van Colen, C. (2020). Seasonal variability in ecosystem functioning across estuarine gradients: The role of sediment communities and ecosystem processes. Mar. Environ. Res. 162: 105096.
    Middelburg, J.J.; Soetaert, K.; Hagens, M. (2020). Ocean alkalinity, buffering and biogeochemical processes. Rev. Geophys. 58(3): e2019RG000681.
    Pilotto, F.; Kühn, I.; Adrian, R.; Alber, R.; Alignier, A.; Andrews, C.; Bäck, J.; Barbaro, L.; Beaumont, D.; Beenaerts, N.; Benham, S.; Boukal, D.S.; Bretagnolle, V.; Camatti, E.; Canullo, R.; Cardoso, P.G.; Ens, B.J.; Everaert, G.; Evtimova, V.; Feuchtmayr, H.; García-González, R.; Gómez García, D.; Grandin, U.; Gutowski, J.M.; Hadar, L.; Halada, L.; Halassy, M.; Hummel, H.; Huttunen, K.-L.; Jaroszewicz, B.; Jensen, T.C.; Kalivoda, H.; Schmidt, I.K.; Kröncke, I.; Leinonen, R.; Martinho, F.; Meesenburg, H.; Meyer, J.; Minerbi, S.; Monteith, D.; Nikolov, B.P.; Oro, D.; Ozoliņš, D.; Padedda, B.M.; Pallett, D.; Pansera, M.; Pardal, M.A.; Petriccione, B.; Pipan, T.; Pöyry, J.; Schäfer, S.M.; Schaub, M.; Schneider, S.C.; Skuja, A.; Soetaert, K.; Spriņģe, G.; Stanchev, R.; Stockan, J.A.; Stoll, S.; Sundqvist, L.; Thimonier, A.; Van Hoey, G.; Van Ryckegem, G.; Visser, M.E.; Vorhauser, S.; Haase, P. (2020). Meta-analysis of multidecadal biodiversity trends in Europe. Nature Comm. 11(1): 3486.
    Poiesz, S.; van Leeuwen, A.; Soetaert, K.; Witte, J.IJ.; Zaat, D.S.C.; van der Veer, H.W. (2020). Is summer growth reduction related to feeding guild? A test for a benthic juvenile flatfish sole (Solea solea) in a temperate coastal area, the western Wadden Sea. Est., Coast. and Shelf Sci. 235: 106570.
    Ramalho, S.P.; Lins, L.; Soetaert, K.; Lampadariou, N.; Cunha, M.R.; Vanreusel, A.; Pape, E. (2020). Ecosystem functioning under the influence of bottom-trawling disturbance: An experimental approach and field observations from a continental slope area in the West Iberian Margin. Front. Mar. Sci. 7: 457.
    Rijnsdorp, A.D.; Boute, P.G.; Tiano, J.C.; Soetaert, K.; Beier, U.; De Borger, E.; Hintzen, N.; Molenaar, P.; Polet, H.; Poos, J.J.; Schram, H.; Soetaert, M.; van Overzee, H.; van de Wolfshaar, K.; van Kooten, T. (2020). The implications of a transition from tickler chain beam trawl to electric pulse trawl on the sustainability and ecosystem effects of the fishery for North Sea sole: an impact assessment. Wageningen Marine Research Report, C037/20. Wageningen Marine Research: Ijmuiden. 108 pp.
    Schulz, K.; Soetaert, K.; Mohn, C.; Korte, L.F.; Mienis, F.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Oevelen, D. (2020). Linking large-scale circulation patterns to the distribution of cold water corals along the eastern Rockall Bank (northeast Atlantic). J. Mar. Syst. 212: 103456.
    Stratmann, T.; van Oevelen, D.; Martinez Arbizu, P.; Wei, C.L.; Liao, J.-X.; Cusson, M.; Scrosati, R.; Archambault, P.; Snelgrove, P.; Ramey-Balci, P.; Burd, B.J.; Kenchington, E.; Belley, R.; Soetaert, K. (2020). The BenBioDen database, a global database for meio-, macro- and megabenthic biomass and densities. Scientific Data 7: 206.
    Tiano, J.C.; van der Reijden, K.J.; O'Flynn, S.; Beauchard, O.; van der Ree, S.; van der Wees, J.; Ysebaert, T.; Soetaert, K. (2020). Experimental bottom trawling finds resilience in large-bodied infauna but vulnerability for epifauna and juveniles in the Frisian Front. Mar. Environ. Res. 159: 104964.
    van der Kaaden, A.-S.; van Oevelen, D.; Rietkerk, M.; Soetaert, K.; van de Koppel, J. (2020). Spatial self-organization as a new perspective on cold-water coral mound development. Front. Mar. Sci. 7: article 631.
    Xu, Y.; Yao, S.; Soetaert, K.; Fan, X. (2020). Effects of salt marsh restoration on eukaryotic microbenthic communities in the Yangtze Estuary. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 638: 39-50.
  • 2019
    Braeckman, U.; Pasotti, F.; Vázquez, S.; Zacher, K.; Hoffmann, R.; Elvert, M.; Marchant, H.; Buckner, C.; Quartino, M.L.; Mác Cormack, W.; Soetaert, K.; Wenzhöfer, F.; Vanreusel, A. (2019). Degradation of macroalgal detritus in shallow coastal Antarctic sediments. Limnol. Oceanogr. 64(4): 1423-1441.
    Cox, T.J.S.; Maris, T.; van Engeland, T.; Soetaert, K.; Meire, P. (2019). Critical transitions in suspended sediment dynamics in a temperate meso-tidal estuary. NPG Scientific Reports 9(1): 10 pp.
    Degraer, S.; Van Lancker, V.; van Dijk, T.A.G.P.; Birchenough, S.N.R.; De Witte, B.; Elliott, M.; Le Bot, S.; Reiss, H.; Stelzenmüller, V.; Van Gaever, S.; Balian, E.; Cox, D.; Hernandez, F.; Lacroix, G.; Lindeboom, H.J.; Reubens, J.; Soetaert, K. (2019). Interdisciplinary science to support North Sea marine management: lessons learned and future demands. Hydrobiologia 845(1): 1-11.
    Fang, X.; Mestdagh, S.; Ysebaert, T.; Moens, T.; Soetaert, K.; Van Colen, C. (2019). Spatio-temporal variation in sediment ecosystem processes and roles of key biota in the Scheldt estuary. Est., Coast. and Shelf Sci. 222: 21-31.
    Grenz, C.; Moreno, M.O.; Soetaert, K.; Denis, L.; Douillet, P.; Fichez, R. (2019). Spatio-temporal variability in benthic exchanges at the sediment-water interface of a shallow tropical coastal lagoon (south coast of Gulf of Mexico). Est., Coast. and Shelf Sci. 218: 368-380.
    Jiang, L.; Gerkema, T.; Wijsman, J.W.M.; Soetaert, K. (2019). Comparing physical and biological impacts on seston renewal in a tidal bay with extensive shellfish culture. J. Mar. Syst. 194: 102-110.
    Jiang, L.; Soetaert, K.; Gerkema, T. (2019). Decomposing the intra-annual variability of flushing characteristics in a tidal bay along the North Sea. J. Sea Res. 115: 101821.
    Stratmann, T.; Soetaert, K.; Wei, C.L.; Lin, Y.-S.; Van Oevelen, D. (2019). The SCOC database, a large, open, and global database with sediment community oxygen consumption rates. Scientific Data 6: article number: 242.
    Tiano, J.C.; Witbaard, R.; Bergman, M.J.N.; van Rijswijk, P.; Tramper, A.; Van Oevelen, D.; Soetaert, K. (2019). Acute impacts of bottom trawl gears on benthic metabolism and nutrient cycling. ICES J. Mar. Sci./J. Cons. int. Explor. Mer 76(6): 1917–1930.
    Vlaminck, E.; Voet, H.; Vanaverbeke, J.; Degraer, S.; Moens, T.; Cattrijsse, A.; Soetaert, K.; Van Colen, C. (2019). Experimental approach towards the understanding of food web interactions in an offshore wind farm environment under different climate and aquaculture scenarios, in: Mees, J. et al. (Ed.) Book of abstracts – VLIZ Marine Science Day. Bredene, Belgium, 13 March 2019. VLIZ Special Publication, 83: pp. 154
  • 2018
    Damveld, J.H.; van der Reijden, K.J.; Cheng, C.; Koop, L.; Haaksma, L.R.; Walsh, C.A.J.; Soetaert, K.; Borsje, B.W.; Govers, L.L; Roos, P.C.; Olff, H.; Hulscher, S.J.M.H. (2018). Video transects reveal that tidal sand waves affect the spatial distribution of benthic organisms and sand ripples. Geophys. Res. Lett. 45(21): 11,837-11,846.
    Husson, B.; Sarrazin, J.; van Oevelen, D.; Sarradin, P.-M.; Soetaert, K.; Menesguen, A. (2018). Modelling the interactions of the hydrothermal mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus with vent fluid. Ecol. Model. 377: 35-50.
    Ivanov, E.; Capet, A.; Barth, A.; Delhez, E.; Soetaert, K.; Grégoire, M. (2018). Application of two way nesting model to upscale sediment processes of the Southern Bight of the North Sea: full model validation, in: Mees, J. et al. (Ed.) Book of abstracts – VLIZ Marine Scientist Day. Bredene, Belgium, 21 March 2018. VLIZ Special Publication, 80: pp. 94
    Lessin, G.; Artioli, Y.; Almroth-Rosell, E.; Blackford, J.C.; Dale, A. W.; Glud, R.N.; Middelburg, J.J.; Pastres, R.; Queirós, A.M.; Rabouille, C.; Regnier, P.; Soetaert, K.; Solidoro, C.; Stephens, N.; Yakushev, E. (2018). Modelling marine sediment biogeochemistry: current knowledge gaps, challenges, and some methodological advice for advancement. Front. Mar. Sci. 5: 19.
    Snelgrove, P.V.R.; Soetaert, K.; Solan, M.; Thrush, S.; Wei, C.L.; Danovaro, R.; Kitazato, H.; Ingole, B.; Norkko, A.; Parkes, R.J.; Volkenborn, N. (2018). Global carbon cycling on a heterogeneous seafloor. Trends Ecol. Evol. 33(2): 96-105.
    van Oevelen, D.; Duineveld, G.; Lavaleye, M.S.S.; Kutti, T.; Soetaert, K. (2018). Trophic structure of cold-water coral communities revealed from the analysis of tissue isotopes and fatty acid composition. Mar. Biol. Res. 14(3): 287-306.
  • 2017
    Cox, T.J.S.; van Beusekom, J.E.E.; Soetaert, K. (2017). Tune in on 11.57 µHz and listen to primary production. Biogeosciences 14(22): 5271-5280.
    Geerts, L.; Cox, T.J.S.; Maris, T.; Wolfstein, K.; Meire, P.; Soetaert, K. (2017). Substrate origin and morphology differentially determine oxygen dynamics in two major European estuaries, the Elbe and the Schelde. Est., Coast. and Shelf Sci. 191: 157-170.
    Holding, J.M.; Duarte, C.M.; Delgado-Huertas, A.; Soetaert, K.; Vonk, J.E.; Agusti, S.; Wassmann, P.; Middelburg, J. (2017). Autochthonous and allochthonous contributions of organic carbon to microbial food webs in Svalbard fjords. Limnol. Oceanogr. 62(3): 1307-1323.
    Ivanov, E.; Capet, A.; Barth, A.; Delhez, E.; Soetaert, K.; Grégoire, M. (2017). Three-dimensional modelling of the Southern Bight of the North Sea: first results and perspectives. Poster at the VLIZ Marine Scientist Day 3 March 2017. University of Liege: Liege. 1 poster pp.
    Le Guitton, M.; Soetaert, K.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Middelburg, J.J. (2017). A seasonal study of particulate organic matter composition and quality along an offshore transect in the southern North Sea. Est., Coast. and Shelf Sci. 188: 1-11.
    Maugendre, L.; Gattuso, J.-P.; de Kluijver, A.; Soetaert, K.; van Oevelen, D.; Middelburg, J.J.; Gazeau, F. (2017). Carbon-13 labelling shows no effect of ocean acidification on carbon transfer in Mediterranean plankton communities. Est., Coast. and Shelf Sci. 186(Part A): 100-111.
    Schwarz, C.; Cox, T.; van Engeland, T.; van Oevelen, D.; van Belzen, J.; van de Koppel, J.; Soetaert, K.; Bouma, T.J.; Meire, P.; Temmerman, S. (2017). Field estimates of floc dynamics and settling velocities in a tidal creek with significant along-channel gradients in velocity and SPM. Est., Coast. and Shelf Sci. 197: 221-235.
  • 2016
    Capet, A.; Meysman, Filip; Akoumianaki, I.; Soetaert, K.; Grégoire, M. (2016). Integrating sediment biogeochemistry into 3D oceanic models: a study of benthic-pelagic coupling in the Black Sea. Ocean Modelling 101: 83-100.
    De Smet, B.; Braeckman, U.; Soetaert, K.; Vincx, M.; Vanaverbeke, J. (2016). Predator effects on the feeding and bioirrigation activity of ecosystem-engineered Lanice conchilega reefs. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 475: 31-37.
    De Smet, B.; van Oevelen, D.; Vincx, M.; Vanaverbeke, J.; Soetaert, K. (2016). Lanice conchilega structures carbon flows in soft-bottom intertidal areas. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 552: 47-60.
    Soetaert, K.; Mohn, C.; Rengstorf, A.; Grehan, A.; Van Oevelen, D. (2016). Ecosystem engineering creates a direct nutritional link between 600-m deep cold-water coral mounds and surface productivity. NPG Scientific Reports 6(35057 ): 9 pp.
    Ulses, C.; Auger, P.-A.; Soetaert, K.; Marsaleix, P.; Diaz, F.; Coppola, L.; Herrmann, M.J.; Kessouri, F.; Estournel, C. (2016). Budget of organic carbon in the North-Western Mediterranean open sea over the period 2004–2008 using 3-D coupled physical-biogeochemical modeling. JGR: Oceans 121(9): 7026–7055.
    Van Colen, C.; Braeckman, U.; Guilini, K.; Van Gansbeke, D.; Soetaert, K.; Vincx, M.; Vanaverbeke, J. (2016). Context-dependent effects of ocean acidification on soft-sediment biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, in: Degraer, S. et al. (Ed.) North Sea Open Science Conference 7-10/11/2016. Abstract Booklet. pp. 36
    Yevenes, M.A.; Soetaert, K.; Mannaerts, C.M. (2016). Tracing Nitrate-Nitrogen Sources and Modifications in a Stream Impacted by Various Land Uses, South Portugal. Water 8(9): 385.
  • 2015
    Braeckman, U.; Provoost, P.; Sabbe, K.; Soetaert, K.; Middelburg, J.J.; Vincx, M.; Vanaverbeke, J. (2015). Temporal dynamics in a shallow coastal benthic food web: Insights from fatty acid biomarkers and their stable isotopes. Mar. Environ. Res. 108: 55-68.
    Cox, T.J.S.; Maris, T.; Soetaert, K.; Kromkamp, J.C.; Meire, P.; Meysman, F.J.R. (2015). Estimating primary production from oxygen time series: A novel approach in the frequency domain. Limnol. Oceanogr., Methods 13(10): 529-552.
    Le Guitton, M.; Soetaert, K.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Middelburg, J.J. (2015). Biogeochemical consequences of vertical and lateral transport of particulate organic matter in the southern North Sea: A multiproxy approach. Est., Coast. and Shelf Sci. 165: 117-127.
    Maugendre, L.; Gattuso, J.-P.; Louis, J.; de Kluijver, A.; Marro, S.; Soetaert, K.; Gazeau, F. (2015). Effect of ocean warming and acidification on a plankton community in the NW Mediterranean Sea. ICES J. Mar. Sci./J. Cons. int. Explor. Mer 72(6): 1744-1755.
    Meire, L.; Sogaard, D.H.; Mortensen, J.; Meysman, F.J.R.; Soetaert, K.; Arendt, K.E.; Juul-Pedersen, T.; Blicher, T.E.; Rysgaard, S. (2015). Glacial meltwater and primary production are drivers of strong CO2 uptake in fjord and coastal waters adjacent to the Greenland Ice Sheet. Biogeosciences 12(8): 2347-2363.
  • 2014
    Braeckman, U.; Van Colen, C.; Guilini, K.; Van Gansbeke, D.; Soetaert, K.; Vincx, M.; Vanaverbeke, J. (2014). Empirical evidence reveals seasonally dependent reduction in nitrification in coastal sediments subjected to near future ocean acidification. PLoS One 9(10): e108153.
    Braeckman, U.; Yazdani Foshtomi, M.; Van Gansbeke, D.; Meysman, F.; Soetaert, K.; Vincx, M.; Vanaverbeke, J. (2014). Variable importance of macrofaunal functional biodiversity for biogeochemical cycling in temperate coastal sediments. Ecosystems 17(4): 720-737.
    Mohn, C.; Rengstorf, A.; White, M.; Mienis, F.; Soetaert, K.; Grehan, A.; Duineveld, G. (2014). Linking benthic hydrodynamics and cold-water coral occurrences: A high-resolution model study at three cold-water coral provinces in the NE Atlantic. Prog. Oceanogr. 122: 92-104.
    Moneta, A.; Veuger, B.; van Rijswijk, P.; Meysman, F; Soetaert, K.; Middelburg, J.J. (2014). Dissolved inorganic and organic nitrogen uptake in the coastal North Sea: a seasonal study. Est., Coast. and Shelf Sci. 147: 78-86.
  • 2013
    Adams Krumins, J.; van Oevelen, D.; Bezemer, T.M.; de Deyn, G.B.; Hol, W.H.G.; van Donk, E.; de Boer, W.; de Ruiter, P.C.; Middelburg, J.J.; Monroy, F.; Soetaert, K.; Thébault, E.; van de Koppel, J.; van Veen, J.A.; Viketoft, M.; van der Putten, W.H. (2013). Soil and Freshwater and Marine Sediment Food Webs: Their Structure and Function. BioScience 63(1): 35-42.
    Braeckman, U.; Vanaverbeke, J.; Vincx, M.; van Oevelen, D.; Soetaert, K. (2013). Meiofauna metabolism in suboxic sediments: currently overestimated. PLoS One 8(3): e59289.
    de Kluijver, A.; Soetaert, K.; Czerny, J.; Schulz, K.G.; Boxhammer, T.; Riebesell, U.; Middelburg, J.J. (2013). A 13C labelling study on carbon fluxes in Arctic plankton communities under elevated CO2 levels. Biogeosciences 10(3): 1425-1440.
    Koho, K.A.; Nierop, K.G.J.; Moodley, L.; Middelburg, J.J.; Pozzato, L.; Soetaert, K.; van der Plicht, J.; Reichart, G.J. (2013). Microbial bioavailability regulates organic matter preservation in marine sediments. Biogeosciences 10(2): 1131-1141.
    Meire, L.; Soetaert, K.; Meysman, F.J.R. (2013). Impact of global change on coastal oxygen dynamics and risk of hypoxia. Biogeosciences 10(4): 2633-2653.
    Morris, E.P.; Peralta, G.; Van Engeland, T.; Bouma, T.J.; Brun, F.G.; Lara, M.; Hendriks, I.E.; Benavente, J.; Soetaert, K.; Middelburg, J.J.; Perez-Llorens, J.L. (2013). The role of hydrodynamics in structuring in situ ammonium uptake within a submerged macrophyte community. Limnol. Oceanogr. 3: 210-224.
    Pape, E.; van Oevelen, D.; Moodley, L.; Soetaert, K.; Vanreusel, A. (2013). Nematode feeding strategies and the fate of dissolved organic matter carbon in different deep-sea sedimentary environments. Deep-Sea Res., Part 1, Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 80: 94-110.
    Pozzato, L.; van Oevelen, D.; Moodley, L.; Soetaert, K.; Middelburg, J.J (2013). Sink or link? The bacterial role in benthic carbon cycling in the Arabian Sea's oxygen minimum zone. Biogeosciences 10: 6879-6891.
    Pozzato, L.; van Oevelen, D.; Moodley, L.; Soetaert, K.; Middelburg, J.J. (2013). Carbon processing at the deep-sea floor of the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone: A tracer approach. J. Sea Res. 78: 45-58.
    Provoost, P.; Braeckman, U.; Van Gansbeke, D.; Moodley, L.; Soetaert, K.; Middelburg, J.J.; Vanaverbeke, J. (2013). Modelling benthic oxygen consumption and benthic-pelagic coupling at a shallow station in the southern North Sea. Est., Coast. and Shelf Sci. 120: 1-11.
    Tecchio, S.; van Oevelen, D.; Soetaert, K.; Navarro, J.; Ramírez-Llodra, E. (2013). Trophic Dynamics of Deep-Sea Megabenthos Are Mediated by Surface Productivity. PLoS One 8(5).
    Van Engeland, T.; Bouma, T.J.; Morris, E.P.; Brun, F.G.; Peralta, G.; Lara, M.; Hendriks, I.E.; van Rijswijk, P.; Veuger, B.; Soetaert, K.; Middelburg, J.J. (2013). Dissolved organic matter uptake in a temperate seagrass ecosystem. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 478: 87-100.
  • 2012
    Braeckman, U.; Provoost, P.; Sabbe, K.; Soetaert, K.; Middelburg, J.J.; Vincx, M.; Vanaverbeke, J. (2012). Temporal dynamics in the diet of two marine polychaetes as inferred from fatty acid biomarkers. J. Sea Res. 68: 6-19.
    Dähnke, K.; Moneta, A.; Veuger, B.; Soetaert, K.; Middelburg, J.J. (2012). Balance of assimilative and dissimilative nitrogen processes in a diatom-rich tidal flat sediment. Biogeosciences 9(10): 4059-4070.
    Evrard, V.; Huettel, M.; Cook, P.L.M.; Soetaert, K.; Heip, C.H.R.; Middelburg, J.J. (2012). Importance of phytodetritus and microphytobenthos for heterotrophs in a shallow subtidal sandy sediment. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 455: 13-31.
    Mazzia, F.; Cash, J.R.; Soetaert, K. (2012). A Test Set for stiff Initial Value Problem Solvers in the open source software R: Package deTestSet. Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics 236(16): 4119-4131.
    Soetaert, K. (2012). Solving differential equations in R. Springer: London; Berlin. ISBN 9783642280702. 1-248 pp.
    Soetaert, K.; Meysman, F. (2012). Reactive transport in aquatic ecosystems: Rapid model prototyping in the open source software R. Environ. Model. Softw. 32: 49-60.
    Soetaert, K; van Oevelen, D.; Sommer, S. (2012). Modelling the impact of Siboglinids on the biogeochemistry of the Captain Arutyunov mud volcano (Gulf of Cadiz). Biogeosciences 9(12): 5341-5352.
    van Oevelen, D.; Soetaert, K.; Heip, C. (2012). Carbon flows in the benthic food web of the Porcupine Abyssal Plain: The(un)importance of labile detritus in supporting microbial and faunal carbon demands. Limnol. Oceanogr. 57(2): 645-664.
  • 2011
    van Oevelen, D.; Soetaert, K.; Garcia, R.; de Stigter, H.C.; Cunha, M.R.; Pusceddu, A.; Danovaro, R.; Garcia, R. (2011). Canyon conditions impact carbon flows in food webs of three sections of the Nazare canyon. Deep-Sea Res., Part 2, Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 58(23-24): 2461-2476.

Linked projects

UUNIOZ_Greenland fjords as gateways between the ice sheet and the ocean
Lorenz Meire
Utrecht University
Project duration
1 Jan 2021 - 31 Dec 2025
NWO SANDBOX_Smart and sustainable design for offshore operations in a sandy seabed
Karline Soetaert
Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research
Project duration
28 May 2015 - 31 Aug 2019
UUNIOZ_Impact of microphytobenthos
Karline Soetaert
Utrecht University
Project duration
1 Jan 2021 - 31 Dec 2025
EMODnet_The European Marine Observation and Data Network - part biology
Karline Soetaert
European Community
Project duration
19 Apr 2017 - 18 May 2019
PULS_Impact Assessment of Pulstrawl Fishery (IAPF)
Karline Soetaert
Wageningen Marine Research
Project duration
1 Jan 2016 - 31 Dec 2019