Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research
Phone number
+31 (0)222 36 9513
Senior Research Leader

Prof. Dr. Corina Brussaard

Senior Research Leader

Viruses sustain life in the ocean

Microbiologist Corina Brussaard investigates viruses in the seas and oceans. ‘There are many viruses; one glass of seawater easily contains 150 million virus particles. But how significant is their ecological effect?’

Unknown territory

‘It is often said that we know more about the surface of the moon than about life in the ocean. That could certainly be the case for these marine viruses. At present, we are only investigating the tip of the iceberg. A large number of novel viruses have been found, amongst which giant viruses and viruses that infect other viruses.’ Who these viruses infect, how effective they are, and what the consequences are for the marine food web needs further study. We have found for example, that algal mortality due to viruses is considerable, and even comparable to losses by grazing of algae by other organisms. The effect on the structure and efficiency of the food chain is, however, completely different. It should therefore be investigated how important these viral infections are, not only for the specific host species but also for the entire ecosystem. Especially now, in a period when the oceans are undergoing so many changes.’

Long live the viruses

‘Viruses have a bad reputation; after all, they make you ill! But that is just one side of the story. The majority of living biomass in the sea consists of microorganisms. Sooner or later, those billions of virus particles cause the unicellular host cells to die following the infection (due to the release of the newly produced progeny viruses), as result of which the host cell contents end up in the surrounding water and will be decomposed by bacteria. As there are so many of these microorganisms, the viruses worldwide jointly have a significant influence on the carbon and nutrient cycles in the oceans. Due to their specific preferences who to infect, viruses also ensure considerable biodiversity of species and strains: after all, the death of one gives another the chance to grow. Therefore, paradoxically, viruses contribute to sustaining life in the sea.’

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Linked news

Thursday 07 January 2021
€ 3,5 million awarded for Dutch Caribbean coral reef research
We know that coral reefs worldwide are in decline; remarkably little is known about how exactly this happens. That is why a major multidisciplinary research project will start in the coming years within the NWO's Caribbean Research programme under…
Friday 04 December 2020
Virus activity essential for understanding polar phytoplankton dynamics and future change
Polar oceans play a key role in climate regulation by providing an important sink for atmospheric CO2. At the same time, these areas are especially sensitive to global warming. Further warming of the ocean surface and an increase in the input of…
Thursday 26 March 2020
Animals keep viruses in the sea in balance
A variety of sea animals can take up virus particles while filtering seawater for oxygen and food. Sponges are particularly efficient. That was written by marine ecologist Jennifer Welsh from NIOZ this week, in a publication in Scientific Reports.…
Tuesday 13 August 2019
NIOZ Pelagia cruise: In search of Sargassum
A multidisciplinary team of scientists aboard NIOZ flagship RV Pelagia sailed from July 11th till August 11th the Northern Atlantic Ocean to study Sargassum; an open-ocean brown macroalga that started forming unprecendented accumulations and…
Thursday 07 March 2019
Koninklijk Paar ontmoet NIOZ delegatie in Bremen
Op 6 maart 2019 spraken Koning Willem-Alexander en Koningin Maxima tijdens een werkbezoek aan Bremen met Nederlandse en Duitse pool- en marienonderzoekers over veranderingen in de poolgebieden en de wereldwijde directe of indirecte gevolgen daarvan.…
Friday 11 March 2016
Brussaard elected as fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology
The American Academy of Microbiology selects its fellows on the basis of scientific excellence, originality, and leadership in their field of microbiological research.

Linked blogs

Tuesday 09 January 2024
Between the 4th and 23rd of January, a team of scientists are on board the RV Pelagia to collect a second set of data and samples for the SEALINK project. This is a large, interdisciplinary project running from 2021 to 2025 in which Dutch and…
Wednesday 13 April 2022
Sealink expedition 2022
From 7-18 April scientists of NIOZ on board the RV Pelagia collect data and samples in the Sealink project. In the interdisciplinary Sealink project, Dutch and Caribbean scientists are investigating how water quality affects coral reef health along…
Friday 19 February 2021
NIOZ@SEA | RV Pelagia Stratiphyt-21 cruise
The ocean is teeming with life – but what many do not realize, it is mainly microscopic life! More than 70% of the living biomass in our seas and oceans is microbial. In contrast to land-life, ocean ‘plants’ (primary producers) are best to float to…
Monday 05 October 2020
Podcast Van Delta tot Diepzee aflevering 1_De zee als vergaarbak van miljarden virussen
In de ban van het corona-virus als we zijn, trappen we de podcastserie af met de virus-deskundige van het NIOZ, Corina Brussaard. Want ook al barst het in de zee van het leven, van bacteriën tot baleinwalvissen, de virussen verslaan al die…
Tuesday 13 August 2019
NIOZ@SEA | RV Pelagia Sargassum Cruise PE-455
The holopelagic species of Sargassum (i.e. S. natans and S. fluitans), which are normally associated with the Sargasso Sea, have begun forming unprecedented accumulations and subsequent strandings on the western coast of Africa, northern Brazil, and…
Monday 11 February 2019
Antarctic expedition FePhyrus II
Wat hebben ijzer en virus-infecties in Antarctica met elkaar te maken? We zijn op expeditie in de Zuidelijke Oceaan en de Weddellzee om dit uit te zoeken. Volg onze avonturen in de winter van 2018/2019 via deze blog! ~~~~ English version below ~~~~
Thursday 07 February 2019
Virus diversiteit en activiteit in Antarctica | Viral diversity and activity in Antarctic waters
Micro-organismen (algen en bacteriën) vormen de basis van de voedselketen in onze oceanen. Ook spelen ze een belangrijke rol in de wereldwijde cyclus van voedingsstoffen (nutriënten) en produceren ze 50 procent van het zuurstof op aarde. Net als in…
Wednesday 21 February 2018
Antarctic expedition FePhyrus
Wat hebben ijzer en virus-infecties in Antarctica met elkaar te maken? We zijn op expeditie in de kustgebieden van West-Antarctica om dit uit te zoeken. Volg onze avonturen in de winter van 2017/2018 via deze blog! ~~~~ English version…
Friday 18 August 2017
Expedition STRATIPHYT-17
An ad-hoc cruise where an interdisciplinary team will build on earlier obtained knowledge during the STRATIPHYT project, but where we will also investigate new ideas, and collect samples for others that cannot join the cruise. The team consists of 3…

NIOZ publications

  • 2023
    Aylward, F.O.; Abrahão, J.S.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Fischer, M.G.; Moniruzzaman, M.; Ogata, H.; Suttle, C.A. (2023). Taxonomic update for giant viruses in the order Imitervirales (phylum Nucleocytoviricota). Archives of Virology 168(11): 283.
    Roitman, S.; Rozenberg, A.; Lavy, T.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Kleifeld, O.; Béjà, O. (2023). Isolation and infection cycle of a polinton-like virus virophage in an abundant marine alga. Nature Microbiology 8(2): 332-346.
    Tian, H.-A.; van Manen, M.; Wille, F.; Jung, J.; Lee, S.H.; Kim, T.-W.; Aoki, S.; Eich, C.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Reichart, G.-J.; Conway, T.M.; Middag, R. (2023). The biogeochemistry of zinc and cadmium in the Amundsen Sea, coastal Antarctica. Mar. Chem. 249: 104223.
  • 2022
    Biggs, T.E.G.; Rozema, P.D.; Evans, C.; Timmermans, K.R.; Meredith, M.P.; Pond, D.W.; Brussaard, C.P.D. (2022). Control of Antarctic phytoplankton community composition and standing stock by light availability. Polar Biol. 45(11): 1635-1653.
    Eich, C.; Biggs, T.E.G.; van de Poll, W.H.; van Manen, M.H.; Tian, H.-A.; Jung, J.; Lee, Y.; Middag, R.; Brussaard, C.P.D. (2022). Ecological importance of viral lysis as a loss factor of phytoplankton in the Amundsen Sea. Microorganisms 10(10): 1967.
    Koppelle, S.; López-Escardó, D.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Huisman, J.; Philippart, C.J.M.; Massana, R.; Wilken, S. (2022). Mixotrophy in the bloom-forming genus Phaeocystis and other haptophytes. Harmful Algae 117: 102292.
    Matthijnssens, J.; Attoui, H.; Bányai, K.; Brussaard, C.; Danthi, P.; del Vas, M.; Dermody, T.S.; Duncan, R.; Fang, Q.; Johne, R.; Mertens, P.P.C.; Mohd Jaafar, F.; Patton, J.T.; Sasaya, T.; Suzuki, N.; Wei, T. (2022). ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Spinareoviridae 2022. J. Gen. Virol. 103(11).
    Matthijnssens, J.; Attoui, H.; Bányai, K.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Danthi, P.; del Vas, M.; Dermody, T.S.; Duncan, R.; Fang, Q.; Johne, R.; Mertens, P.P.C.; Mohd Jaafar, F.; Patton, J.T.; Sasaya, T.; Suzuki, N.; Wei, T. (2022). ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Sedoreoviridae 2022. J. Gen. Virol. 103(10): 001782.
    van Manen, M.H.; Aoki, S.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Conway, T.M.; Eich, C.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; Jung, J.; Kim, T.-W.; Lee, S.H.; Lee, Y.; Reichart, G.-J.; Tian, H.-A.; Wille, F.; Middag, R. (2022). The role of the Dotson Ice Shelf and Circumpolar Deep Water as driver and source of dissolved and particulate iron and manganese in the Amundsen Sea polynya, Southern Ocean. Mar. Chem. 246: 104161.
    Ye, Naihao; Han, Wentao; Toseland, Andrew; Wang, Yitao; Fan, Xiao; Xu, Dong; van Oosterhout, Cock; Aslam, Shazia N.; Barry, Kerrie; Beszteri, Bank; Brussaard, Corina; Clum, Alicia; Copeland, Alex; Daum, Chris; Duncan, Anthony; Eloe-Fadrosh, Emiley; Fong, Allison; Foster, Brian; Foster, Bryce; Ginzburg, Michael; Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Martin, Kara; Moulton, Vincent; Mukherjee, Supratim; Palaniappan, Krishnaveni; Reddy, T. B. K.; Roux, Simon; Schmidt, Katrin; Strauss, Jan; Timmermans, Klaas; Tringe, Susannah G.; Underwood, Graham J. C.; Valentin, Klaus U.; van de Poll, Willem H.; Varghese, Neha; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Tagliabue, Alessandro; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Yan; Ma, Jian; Qiu, Huan; Li, Youxun; Zhang, Xiaowen; Mock, Thomas; Sea of Change Consortium (2022). The role of zinc in the adaptive evolution of polar phytoplankton. Nature Ecology & Evolution 6(7): 965-978.
  • 2021
    Biggs, T.E.G.; Huisman, J.; Brussaard, C.P.D. (2021). Viral lysis modifies seasonal phytoplankton dynamics and carbon flow in the Southern Ocean. ISME J. 15: 3615-3622.
    Eich, C.; Pont, S.B.E.H.; Brussaard, C.P.D. (2021). Effects of UV radiation on the chlorophyte Micromonas polaris host–virus interactions and MpoV-45T virus infectivity. Microorganisms 9(12): 2429.
    Evans, C.; Brandsma, J.; Meredith, M.P.; Thomas, D.N.; Venables, H.J.; Pond, D.W.; Brussaard, C.P.D. (2021). Shift from carbon flow through the microbial loop to the viral shunt in coastal Antarctic Waters during Austral Summer. Microorganisms 9(2): 460.
    Martin, K.; Schmidt, K.; Toseland, A.; Boulton, C.A.; Barry, K.; Beszteri, B.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Clum, A.; Daum, C.G.; Eloe-Fadrosh, E.; Fong, A.; Foster, B.; Foster, B.; Ginzburg, M.; Huntemann, M.; Ivanova, N.N.; Kyrpides, N.C.; Lindquist, E.; Mukherjee, S.; Palaniappan, K.; Reddy, T.B.K.; Rizkallah, M.R.; Roux, S.; Timmermans, K.; Tringe, S.G.; van de Poll, W.H.; Varghese, N.; Valentin, K.U.; Lenton, T.M.; Grigoriev, I.V.; Leggett, R.M.; Moulton, V.; Mock, T. (2021). The biogeographic differentiation of algal microbiomes in the upper ocean from pole to pole. Nature Comm. 12(1).
    Mojica, K.D.A.; Behrenfeld, M.J.; Clay, M.; Brussaard, C.P.D. (2021). Spring accumulation rates in North Atlantic phytoplankton communities linked to alterations in the balance between division and loss. Front. Microbiol. 12: 706137.
    Piel, T; Sandrini, G.; Muyzer, G.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Slot, P.C.; van Herk, M.J.; Huisman, J.; Visser, P.M. (2021). Resilience of microbial communities after hydrogen peroxide treatment of a eutrophic lake to suppress harmful cyanobacterial blooms. Microorganisms 9(7): 1495.
    van de Poll, W.H.; Maat, D.S.; Fischer, F.; Visser, R.J.W.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Buma, A.G.J. (2021). Solar radiation and solar radiation driven cycles in warming and freshwater discharge control seasonal and inter‐annual phytoplankton chlorophyll a and taxonomic composition in a high Arctic fjord (Kongsfjorden, Spitsbergen). Limnol. Oceanogr. 66(4): 1221-1236.
    van Etten, J.L.; Dunigan, D.D.; Nagasaki, K.; Schroeder, D.C.; Grimsley, N.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Nissimov, J.I. (2021). Phycodnaviruses (Phycodnaviridae), in: Bamford, D.H. et al. Encyclopedia of Virology, Fourth Edition. pp. 687-695.
    van Haren, H.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; van Manen, M.H.; Middag, R.; Groenewegen, R. (2021). Diapycnal mixing across the photic zone of the NE Atlantic. Ocean Sci. 17: 301-318.
  • 2020
    Bart, M.C.; Mueller, B.; Rombouts, T.; van de Ven, C.; Tompkins, G.J.; Osinga, R.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; MacDonald, B.; Engel, A.; Rapp, H.T.; de Goeij, J.M. (2021). Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is essential to balance the metabolic demands of four dominant North‐Atlantic deep‐sea sponges. Limnol. Oceanogr. 66(3): 925-938.
    Biggs, T.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Evans, C.; Venables, H.J.; Pond, D.W. (2020). Plasticity in dormancy behaviour of Calanoides acutus in Antarctic coastal waters. ICES J. Mar. Sci./J. Cons. int. Explor. Mer 77(5): 1738-1751.
    Frenken, T.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Velthuis, M.; Aben, R.; Kazanjian, G.; Hilt, S.; Kosten, S.; Peeters, E.T.H.M.; de Senerpont Domis, L.N.; Stephan, S.; Van Donk, E.; van de Waal, D. (2020). Warming advances virus population dynamics in a temperate freshwater plankton community. Limnology and Oceanography Letters 5(4): 295-304.
    Mojica, K.D.A.; Brussaard, C.P.D. (2020). Significance of viral activity for regulating heterotrophic prokaryote community dynamics along a meridional gradient of stratification in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean. Viruses 12(11): 1293.
    Philippart, K.; Blauw, A.; Bolhuis, H.; Brandenburg, K.; Brussaard, C.; Gerkema, T.; Herman, P.; Hommersom, A.; Jacobs, P.; Laanen, M.; van Leeuwe, M.A.; van den Oever, A.; Peters, S.; Philippart, M.; Pitarch, J.; Prins, T.; Ruddick, K.; Spaias, L.; van de Waal, D.; Van der Zande, D.; Zuur, A. (2020). Quick scan zeeschuim. NIOZ/Bureau Waardenburg/Deltares/Highland Statistics/CNR/KBIN/NIOO-KNAW/Rijkswaterstaat (RWS-WVL)/Technische Universiteit Delft/Universiteit van Amsterdam/Universiteit Utrecht/Rijksuniversiteit Groningen/Water Insight BV: Texel. 51 pp.
    Welsh, J.E.; Steenhuis, P.; de Moraes, K.R.; van der Meer, J.; Thieltges, D.W.; Brussaard, C.P.D. (2020). Marine virus predation by non-host organisms. NPG Scientific Reports 10(1): 9 pp.
  • 2019
    Biggs, T.E.G.; Alvarez-Fernandez, S.; Evans, C.; Mojica, K.D.A.; Rozema, P.D.; Venables, H.J.; Pond, D.W.; Brussaard, C.P.D. (2019). Antarctic phytoplankton community composition and size structure: importance of ice type and temperature as regulatory factors. Polar Biol. 42(11): 1997-2015.
    Cheng, K.; Frenken, T.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Van de Waal, D.B. (2019). Cyanophage propagation in the freshwater cyanobacterium Phormidium is constrained by phosphorus limitation and enhanced by elevated pCO2. Front. Microbiol. 10: 617.
    Coutinho, F.H.; Silveira, C.B.; Gregoracci, G.B.; Thompson, C.C.; Edwards, R.A.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Dutilh, B.E.; Thompson, F.L. (2019). Reply to: Caution in inferring viral strategies from abundance correlations in marine metagenomes. Nature Comm. 10(1): 502.
    Grosse, J.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Boschker, H.T.S. (2019). Nutrient limitation driven dynamics of amino acids and fatty acids in coastal phytoplankton. Limnol. Oceanogr. 64(1): 302-316.
    Henley, S.F.; Schofield, O.M.E.; Hendry, K.R.; Schloss, I.R.; Steinberg, D.K.; Moffat, C.; Peck, L.S.; Costa, D.P.; Bakker, D.C.E.; Hughes, C.; Rozema, P.D.; Ducklow, H.W.; Abele, D.; Stefels, J.; van Leeuwe, M.A.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Buma, A.G.J.; Kohut, J.; Sahade, R.; Friedlaender, A.S.; Stammerjohn, S.E.; Venables, H.J.; Meredith, M.P. (2019). Variability and change in the west Antarctic Peninsula marine system: Research priorities and opportunities. Prog. Oceanogr. 173: 208-237.
    Maat, D.; Prins, M.; Brussaard, C. (2019). Sediments from Arctic tide-water glaciers remove coastal marine viruses and delay host infection. Viruses 11(2): 123.
    Maat, D.S.; Visser, R.W.; Brussaard, C.P.D. (2019). Virus removal by glacier-derived suspended fine sediment in the Arctic. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 521: 151227.
    Martin, R.M.; Moniruzzaman, M.; Mucci, N.C.; Willis, A.; Woodhouse, J.N.; Xian, Y.; Xiao, C.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Wilhelm, S.W. (2019). Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii Virus and host: genomic characterization and ecological relevance. Environ. Microbiol. 21(6): 1942-1956.
    Skyllas, N.; Bintanja, R.; Buma, A.G.J.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Gröger, M.; Hieronymus, J.; van de Poll, W.H. (2019). Validation of stratification-driven phytoplankton biomass and nutrient concentrations in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean as simulated by EC-Earth. Geosciences 9(10): 450.
    Talmy, D.; Beckett, S.J.; Taniguchi, D.A.A.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Weitz, J.S.; Follows, M.J. (2019). An empirical model of carbon flow through marine viruses and microzooplankton grazers. Environ. Microbiol. 21(6): 2171-2181.
  • 2018
    Alvarez-Fernandez, S.; Bach, L.T.; Taucher, J.; Riebesell, U.; Sommer, U.; Aberle, N.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Boersma, M. (2018). Plankton responses to ocean acidification: The role of nutrient limitation. Prog. Oceanogr. 165: 11-18.
    Bale, N.J.; Villareal, T.A.; Hopmans, E.C.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Besseling, M.; Dorhout, D.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Schouten, S. (2018). C5 glycolipids of heterocystous cyanobacteria track symbiont abundance in the diatom Hemiaulus hauckii across the tropical North Atlantic. Biogeosciences 15(4): 1229-1241.
    Balzano, S.; Lattaud, J.; Villanueva, L.; Rampen, S.W.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; van Bleijswijk, J.; Bale, N.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Schouten, S. (2018). A quest for the biological sources of long chain alkyl diols in the western tropical North Atlantic Ocean. Biogeosciences 15(19): 5951-5968.
    Nausch, M.; Achterberg, E.P.; Bach, L.T.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Crawfurd, K.J.; Fabian, J.; Riebesell, U.; Stuhr, A.; Unger, J.; Wannicke, N. (2018). Concentrations and uptake of dissolved organic phosphorus compounds in the Baltic Sea. Front. Mar. Sci. 5: 386.
    Noor, L.H.W.; van der Kroef, D.A.; Wattam, D.; Pinnock, M.; van Rossum, R.; Smit, M.G.; Brussaard, C.P.D. (2018). Innovative transportable laboratories for polar science. Polar Rec. 54(1): 18-28.
    Piedade, G.; Wesdorp, E.; Montenegro-Borbolla, E.; Maat, D.; Brussaard, C. (2018). Influence of irradiance and temperature on the virus MpoV-45T infecting the Arctic picophytoplankter micromonas polaris. Viruses 10(12): 676.
    Taylor, B.; Weitz, J.; Brussaard, C.; Fischer, M. (2018). Quantitative infection dynamics of Cafeteria roenbergensis virus. Viruses 10(9): 468.
    van de Poll, W.H.; Kulk, G.; Rozema, P.D.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Visser, R.J.W.; Buma, A.G.J. (2018). Contrasting glacial meltwater effects on post-bloom phytoplankton on temporal and spatial scales in Kongsfjorden, Spitsbergen. Elem. Sci. Anth. 6(1): 50.
  • 2017
    Coutinho, F.H.; Silveira, C.B.; Gregoracci, G.B.; Thompson, C.; Edwards, R.A.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Dutilh, B.E.; Thompson, F.L. (2017). Marine viruses discovered via metagenomics shed light on viral strategies throughout the oceans. Nature Comm. 8: 15955.
    Crawfurd, K.J.; Alvarez-Fernandez, S.; Mojica, K.D.A.; Riebesell, U.; Brussaard, C.P.D. (2017). Alterations in microbial community composition with increasing fCO2: a mesocosm study in the eastern Baltic Sea. Biogeosciences 14(16): 3831-3849.
    Evans, C.; Brandsma, J.; Pond, D.W.; Venables, H.J.; Meredith, M.P.; Witte, H.J.; Stammerjohn, S.; Wilson, W.H.; Clarke, A.; Brussaard, C.P.D. (2017). Drivers of interannual variability in virioplankton abundance at the coastal western Antarctic peninsula and the potential effects of climate change. Environ. Microbiol. 19(2): 740-755.
    Fernández-García, J.L.; de Ory, A.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; de Vega, M. (2017). Phaeocystis globosa Virus DNA Polymerase X: a “Swiss Army knife”, Multifunctional DNA polymerase-lyase-ligase for Base Excision Repair. NPG Scientific Reports 7(1): 13.
    Grosse, J.; van Breugel, P.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Boschker, H.T.S. (2017). A biosynthesis view on nutrient stress in coastal phytoplankton. Limnol. Oceanogr. 62(2): 490-506.
    Hornick, T.; Bach, L.T.; Crawfurd, K.J.; Spilling, K.; Achterberg, E.P.; Woodhouse, J.N.; Schulz, K.G.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Riebesell, U.; Grossart, H.-P. (2017). Ocean acidification impacts bacteria – phytoplankton coupling at low-nutrient conditions. Biogeosciences 14(1): 1-15.
    Maat, D.S.; Biggs, T.; Evans, C.; van Bleijswijk, J.D.L.; van der Wel, N.; Dutilh, B.E.; Brussaard, C.P.D. (2017). Characterization and Temperature Dependence of Arctic Micromonas polaris Viruses. Viruses 9(6): 134.
    Middelboe, M.; Brussaard, C.P.D. (2017). Marine Viruses: Key Players in Marine Ecosystems. Viruses 9(12): 302.
  • 2016
    Brussaard, C.P.D.; Baudoux, A.-C.; Rodríguez-Valera, F. (2016). Marine viruses, in: Stal, L.J. et al. (Ed.) The marine microbiome. An untapped source of biodiversity and biotechnological potential. pp. 155-183.
    Brussaard, C.P.D.; Bidle, K.D.; Pedrós-Alió, C.; Legrand, C. (2016). The interactive microbial ocean. Nature Microbiology 2: 16255.
    Brussaard, C.P.D.; Peperzak, L.; Beggah, S.; Wick, L.Y.; Wuerz, B.; Weber, J.; Arey, J.S.; Van der Burg, B.; Jonas, A.; Huisman, J.; van der Meer, J.R. (2016). Immediate ecotoxicological effects of short-lived oil spills on marine biota. Nature Comm. 7(11206): 11 pp.
    Burson, A.; Stomp, M.; Akil, L.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Huisman, J. (2016). Unbalanced reduction of nutrient loads has created an offshore gradient from phosphorus to nitrogen limitation in the North Sea. Limnol. Oceanogr. 61(3): 869–888.
    Maat, D.; Bale, N.J.; Hopmans, E.C.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Schouten, S.; Brussaard, C.P.D. (2016). Increasing P limitation and viral infection impact lipid remodeling of the picophytoplankter Micromonas pusilla. Biogeosciences 13(5): 1667-1676.
    Maat, D.S.; Brussaard, C.P.D. (2016). Both phosphorus- and nitrogen limitation constrain viral proliferation in marine phytoplankton. Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 77(2): 87-97.
    Maat, D.S.; de Blok, R.; Brussaard, C.P.D. (2016). Combined Phosphorus Limitation and Light Stress Prevent Viral Proliferation in the Phytoplankton Species Phaeocystis globosa, but Not in Micromonas pusilla. Front. Mar. Sci. 3: 160.
    Maat, D.S.; van Bleijswijk, J.D.L.; Witte, H.J.; Brussaard, C.P.D. (2016). Virus production in phosphorus-limited Micromonas pusilla stimulated by a supply of naturally low concentrations of different phosphorus sources, far into the lytic cycle. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 92: fiw136.
    Mojica, K.D.A.; Huisman, J.; Wilhelm, S.W.; Brussaard, C.P.D. (2016). Latitudinal variation in virus-induced mortality of phytoplankton across the North Atlantic Ocean. ISME J. 10(2): 500-513.
    Slagter, H.A.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; Brussaard, C.P.D. (2016). Phytoplankton Virus Production Negatively Affected by Iron Limitation. Front. Mar. Sci. 3: 156.
    Spilling, K.; Schulz, K.G.; Paul, A.J.; Boxhammer, T.; Achterberg, E.P.; Hornick, T.; Lischka, S.; Stuhr, A.; Bermúdez, R.; Czerny, J.; Crawfurd, K.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Grossart, H.-P.; Riebesell, U. (2016). Effects of ocean acidification on pelagic carbon fluxes in a mesocosm experiment. Biogeosciences 13: 6081-6093.
    Steenhauer, L.M.; Wierenga, J.; Carreira, C; Limpens, R.W.A.L.; Koster, A.J.; Pollard, P.C.; Brussaard, C.P.D. (2016). Isolation of cyanophage CrV infecting Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii and the influence of temperature and irradiance on CrV proliferation . Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 78: 11-23.
    Webb, A.L.; Leedham-Elvidge, E.; Hughes, C.; Hopkins, F.; Malin, G.; Bach, L.T.; Schulz, K.; Crawfurd, K.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Stuhr, A.; Riebesell, U.; Liss, P.S. (2016). Effect of ocean acidification and elevated fCO2 on trace gas production by a Baltic Sea summer phytoplankton community. Biogeosciences 13: 4595–4613.
    Wigington, C.H.; Sonderegger, D.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Buchan, A.; Finke, J.F.; Fuhrman, J.A.; Lennon, J.T.; Middelboe, M.; Suttle, C.A.; Stock, C.; Wilson, W.H.; Wommack, K.E.; Wilhelm, S.W.; Weitz, J.S. (2016). Re-examination of the relationship between marine virus and microbial cell abundances. Nature Microbiology 1: 15024.
  • 2015
    Bale, N.J.; Maat, D.S.; Hopmans, E.C.; Mets, A.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Schouten, S. (2015). Fatty acid dynamics during viral infection of Phaeocystis globosa. Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 74: 85–94.
    Bonin, P.; Vieira, C.; Grimaud, R.; Militon, C.; Cuny, P.; Lima, O.; Guasco, S.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Michotey, V. (2015). Substrates specialization in lipid compounds and hydrocarbons of Marinobacter genus. Environm. Sc. & Poll. Res. 22: 15347-15359.
    Carreira, C; Piel, T; Staal, M.; Stuut, J.-B; Middelboe, M.; Brussaard, C.P.D. (2015). Microscale spatial distributions of microbes and viruses in intertidal photosynthetic microbial mats. SpringerPlus 4: 239.
    Carreira, C; Staal, M.; Falkoski, D.; de Vries, R.P.; Middelboe, M.; Brussaard, C.P.D. (2015). Disruption of photoautotrophic intertidal mats by filamentous fungi. Environ. Microbiol. 17(8): 2910-2921. 10.1111/1462-2920.12835
    Carreira, C; Staal, M.; Middelboe, M.; Brussaard, C.P.D. (2015). Counting viruses and bacteria in photosynthetic microbial mats. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 81(6): 2149-2155.
    Carreira, C; Staal, M.; Middelboe, M.; Brussaard, C.P.D. (2015). Autofluorescence imaging system to discriminate and quantify the distribution of benthic cyanobacteria and diatoms. Limnol. Oceanogr., Methods 13(4): 169–177.
    Chronopoulou, P.M.; Sanni, G.O.; Silas-Olu, D.I.; van der Meer, J.R.; Timmis, K.N.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; McGenity, T.J. (2015). Generalist hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial communities in the oil-polluted water column of the North Sea. Microbial biotechnology 8(3): 434–447.
    Martínez Martínez, J.; Boere, A.; Gilg, I.; van Lent, J.W.M.; Witte, H.; van Bleijswijk, J.D.L.; Brussaard, C.D.P. (2015). New lipid envelope-containing dsDNA virus isolates infecting Micromonas pusilla reveal a separate phylogenetic group. Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 74: 17-28.
    Mojica, K.D.A.; Brussaard, C.P.D. (2015). Factors affecting virus dynamics and microbial host-virus interactions in marine environments, in: Mojica, K.D.A. Viral lysis of marine microbes in relation to vertical stratification. pp. 27-72
    Mojica, K.D.A.; Brussaard, C.P.D. (2015). Heterotrophic prokaryotic growth and loss rates along a latitudinal gradient in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean, in: Mojica, K.D.A. Viral lysis of marine microbes in relation to vertical stratification. pp. 173-204
    Mojica, K.D.A.; Brussaard, C.P.D. (2015). The viral shunt in a stratified Northeast Atlantic Ocean, in: Mojica, K.D.A. Viral lysis of marine microbes in relation to vertical stratification. pp. 207-222
    Mojica, K.D.A.; Evans, C.; Brussaard, C.P.D. (2015). Flow cytometric enumeration of marine viral populations at low abundances, in: Mojica, K.D.A. Viral lysis of marine microbes in relation to vertical stratification. pp. 159-171
    Mojica, K.D.A.; Huisman, J.; Wilhelm, S.W.; Brussaard, C.P.D. (2015). Latitudinal variation in virus-induced mortality of phytoplankton across the North Atlantic Ocean, in: Mojica, K.D.A. Viral lysis of marine microbes in relation to vertical stratification. pp. 119-156
    Mojica, K.D.A.; van de Poll, W.H.; Kehoe, M.; Huisman, J.; Timmermans, K.R.; Buma, A.G.J.; Van der Woerd, H.J.; Hahn-Woernle, L.; Dijkstra, H.A.; Brussaard, C.P.D. (2015). Phytoplankton community structure in relation to vertical stratification along a north-south gradient in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean, in: Mojica, K.D.A. Viral lysis of marine microbes in relation to vertical stratification. pp. 75-116
    Mojica, K.D.A.; van de Poll, W.H.; Kehoe, M.; Huisman, J.; Timmermans, K.R.; Buma, A.G.J.; Van der Woerd, H.J.; Hahn-Woernle, L.; Dijkstra, H.A.; Brussaard, C.P.D. (2015). Phytoplankton community structure in relation to vertical stratification along a north-south gradient in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean. Limnol. Oceanogr. 60(5): 1498–1521.
  • 2014
    Brussaard, C.P.D. (2014). Mariene virussen. Cah. Bio.- Wet. Maatsch. kwartaal 2: 49-53
    Gros, J.; Nabi, D.; Wu¨rz, B.; Wick, L.Y.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Huisman , J.; van der Meer, J.R.; Reddy, C.M.; Arey, J.S. (2014). First Day of an Oil Spill on the Open Sea: Early Mass Transfers of Hydrocarbons to Air and Water. Environ. Sci. Technol. 48: 9400-9411.
    Maat, D.S.; Bale, N.J.; Hopmans, E.C.; Baudoux, A.C.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Schouten, S.; Brussaard, C.P.D. (2014). Acquisition of intact polar lipids from the prymnesiophyte Phaeocystis globosa by its lytic virus PgV-07T. Biogeosciences 11(1): 185-194.
    Maat, D.S.; Crawfurd, K.J.; Timmermans, K.R.; Brussaard, C.P.D. (2014). Elevated CO2 and Phosphate Limitation Favor Micromonas pusilla through Stimulated Growth and Reduced Viral Impact. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 80(10): 3119-3127.
    Mojica, K.D.A.; Brussaard, C.P.D. (2014). Factors affecting virus dynamics and microbial host-virus interactions in marine environments. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 89(3): 495–515.
    Mojica, K.D.A.; Evans, C.; Brussaard, C.P.D. (2014). Flow cytometric enumeration of marine viral populations at low abundances. Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 71(3): 203–209.
    Pavlov, A.K.; Silyakova, A.; Granskog, M.A.; Bellerby, R.G.J.; Engel, A.; Schulz, K.G.; Brussaard, C.P.D. (2014). Marine CDOM accumulation during a coastal Arctic mesocosm experiment: No response to elevated pCO2 levels. J. Geophys. Res. Biogeosciences, 119(6): 1216–1230.
    Sheik, A.R.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Lavik, G.; Lam, P.; Musat, N.; Krupke, A.; Littmann, S.; Strous, M.; Kuypers, M.M.M. (2014). Responses of the coastal bacterial community to viral infection of the algae Phaeocystis globosa. ISME J. 8(1): 212-225.
    Steenhauer, L.M.; Pollard, P.C.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Säwström, C. (2014). Lysogenic infection in sub-tropical freshwater cyanobacteria cultures and natural blooms. Mar. Freshw. Res. 65(7): 624-632.
    Welsh, J.E.; van der Meer, J.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Thieltges, D.W. (2014). Inventory of organisms interfering with transmission of a marine trematode. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K. 94(4): 697–702.
  • 2013
    Brandsma, J.; Martínez Martínez, J.; Slagter, H.A.; Evans, C.; Brussaard, C.P.D. (2013). Microbial biogeography of the North Sea during summer. Biogeochemistry 113(1-3): 119-136.
    Brussaard, C.P.D.; Noordeloos, A.A.M.; Witte, H.; Collenteur, M.C.J; Schulz, K.G.; Ludwig, A.; Riebesell, U. (2013). Arctic microbial community dynamics influenced by elevated CO2 levels. Biogeosciences 10(2): 719-731.
    Carreira, C.; Larsen, M.; Glud, R.N.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Middelboe, M. (2013). Heterogeneous distribution of prokaryotes and viruses at the microscale in a tidal sediment. Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 69(3): 183-192.
    Hopkins, F.E.; Kimmance, S.A.; Stephens, J.A.; Bellerby, R.G.J.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Czerny, J.; Schulz, K.G.; Archer, S.D. (2013). Response of halocarbons to ocean acidification in the Arctic. Biogeosciences 10(4): 2331-2345.
    Lønborg, C.; Middelboe, M.; Brussaard, C.P.D. (2013). Viral lysis of Micromonas pusilla: impacts on dissolved organic matter production and composition. Biogeochemistry 116: 231–240.
    Motegi, C.; Tanaka, T.; Piontek, J.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Gattuso , J.-P.; Weinbauer, M.G. (2013). Effect of CO2 enrichment on bacterial metabolism in an Arctic fjord. Biogeosciences 10(5): 3285-3296.
    Santini, S.; Jeudy, S.; Bartoli, J.; Poirot, O.; Lescot, M.; Abergel, C.; Barbe, V.; Wommack, K.E.; Noordeloos, A.A.M.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Claverie, J.M. (2013). Genome of Phaeocystis globosa virus PgV-16T highlights the common ancestry of the largest known DNA viruses infecting eukaryotes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(26): 10800-10805.
    Schulz, K.G.; Bellerby, R.G.J.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Büdenbender, J.; Czerny, J.; Engel, A.; Fischer, M.; Koch-Klavsen, S.; Krug, S.A.; Lischka, S.; Ludwig, A.; Meyerhöfer, M.; Nondal, G.; Silyakova, A.; Stuhr, A.; Riebesell, U. (2013). Temporal biomass dynamics of an Arctic plankton bloom in response toincreasing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Biogeosciences 10(1): 161-180.
    Sheik, A.R.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Lavik, G.; Foster, R.A.; Musat, N.; Adam, B.; Kuypers, M.M.M. (2013). Viral infection of Phaeocystis globosa impedes release of chitinous star-like structures: quantification using single cell approaches. Environ. Microbiol. 15(5): 1441-1451.
    van de Poll, W.H.; Kulk, G.; Timmermans, K.R.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; van der Woerd, H.J.; Kehoe, M.J.; Mojica, K.D.A.; Visser, R.J.W.; Rozema, P.D.; Buma, A.G.J. (2013). Phytoplankton chlorophyll a biomass, composition, and productivity along a temperature and stratification gradient in the northeast Atlantic Ocean. Biogeosciences 10(6): 4227-4240.
  • 2012
    Brandsma, J.; Hopmans, E.C.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Witte, H.J.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S. (2012). Spatial distribution of intact polar lipids in North Sea surface waters: Relationship with environmental conditions and microbial community composition. Limnol. Oceanogr. 57(4): 959-973.
    Coulon, F.; Chronopoulou, P.M.; Fahy, A.; Païssé, S.; Goñi-Urriza, M.; Peperzak, L.; Acuña Alvarez, L.; McKew, B.A.; Underwood, G.J.C.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Timmis, K.N.; Duran, R.; McGenity, T.J. (2012). Central Role of Dynamic Tidal Biofilms Dominated by Aerobic Hydrocarbonoclastic Bacteria and Diatoms in the Biodegradation of Hydrocarbons in Coastal Mudflats. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 78(10): 3638-3648.
    Evans, C.; Brussaard, C.P.D. (2012). Viral lysis and microzooplankton grazing of phytoplankton throughout the Southern Ocean. Limnol. Oceanogr. 57(6): 1826-1837.
    Evans, C.; Brussaard, C.P.D. (2012). Regional Variation in Lytic and Lysogenic Viral Infection in the Southern Ocean and Its Contribution to Biogeochemical Cycling. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 78(18): 6741-6748.
  • 2011
    Evans, C.; Thomson, P.G.; Davidson, A.T.; Bowie, A.R.; van den Enden, R.; Witte, H.; Brussaard, C.P.D. (2011). Potential climate change impacts on microbial distribution and carbon cycling in the Australian Southern Ocean. Deep-Sea Res., Part 2, Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 58(21-22): 2150-2161.
    Maier, C.; de Kluijver, A.; Agis, M.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; van Duyl, F.C.; Weinbauer, M.G. (2011). Dynamics of nutrients, total organic carbon, prokaryotes and viruses in onboard incubations of cold-water corals. Biogeosciences 8(9): 2609-2620.
    Masquelier, S.; Foulon, E.; Jouenne, F.; Ferréol, M.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Vaulot, D. (2011). Distribution of eukaryotic plankton in the English Channel and the North Sea in summer. J. Sea Res. 66(2): 111-122.
    Peperzak, L.; Brussaard, C.P.D. (2011). Flow Cytometric Applicability of Fluorescent Vitality Probes on Phytoplankton. J. Phycol. 47(3): 692-702.

Linked projects

UUNIOZ_Turning the tide
Andi Haas
Utrecht University
Project duration
1 Jan 2021 - 31 Dec 2025
VIRARCT_Importance of microbial viral lysis over grazing in a changing Arctic Ocean
Corina Brussaard
Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research
Project duration
1 Dec 2015 - 30 Sep 2016
POMVIDDY_Polar marine diversity and dynamics
Corina Brussaard
Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research
Project duration
23 May 2017 - 22 May 2021
Polar marine diversity and dynamics
Corina Brussaard
Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research
Project duration
23 May 2017 - 22 May 2021