Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research
Royal Netherlands
Institute for Sea Research
Phone number
+31 (0)222 36 9436
Ocean Systems (OCS)
Senior Scientist
  • Dissolve metals in the ocean
  • Chemical speciation of Fe
  • Polar research
  • Bio-availability of metals

Photo gallery expeditions

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  • September 7, 2015 during PE95 during our visit of the US coastguard ice breaker Healy at the North Pole on September 7, Micha Rijkenberg and Loes Gerringa met GEOTRACES colleague and co-author Andrew Margolin for the first time.

Margolin, A.R., Gerringa, L.J.A., Hansell, D.A., Rijkenberg, M.J.A., 2016.  Net removal of dissolved organic carbon in the anoxic waters of the Black Sea. Mar. Chem. 183, 13-24. doi:10.1016/j.marchem.2016.05.003

Gerringa, L.J.A., Rijkenberg, M.J.A., Bown, J., Margolin, A.R., Laan, P., de Baar, H.J.W., 2016.  Fe-binding dissolved organic ligands in the oxic and suboxic waters of the Black Sea. Front. Mar. Sci. 3:84. doi: 10.3389/fmars.2016.00084

  • A moonfish (Mola mola) in the Mediterranean Sea during Pelagia cruise 64PE374 in 2013.
    Photo: Micha Rijkenberg

Dr. Loes Gerringa

Senior Scientist

‘Mitigating the damage caused by deep-sea mining’

Loes Gerringa studies different metals in the oceans and iron in particular. ‘Iron is a unique metal. It is a limiting factor in the growth of many algae. So algal growth could be considerably stimulated if the water contained more iron. That has led to some people thinking that the oceans could be “fertilised” with iron to encourage algal growth and thus increase the uptake of CO2.’


‘I do not believe that this type of “geoengineering”, in other words, technological solutions to encourage the uptake of CO2 from the atmosphere by iron, will ever be realistic. These will simply cost too much energy, and iron will quickly precipitate anyway. I have a more fundamental interest in metals. I mainly want to understand how iron ends up in the seawater, and whether and how it remains dissolved. When iron enters seawater, it usually precipitates almost immediately. When measuring the minuscule quantities of iron in seawater, we need to be careful that we do not accidentally measure traces of our ship.’

Different methods

'One of my contributions to the research is comparing different analysis methods. Two different methods for analysing iron bound to organic molecules in seawater can easily yield an outcome that differs by a factor of two. I try to compare these methods to discover where the truth actually lies. I also examine the contribution of iron that is attached to humic acids, for example from the melting permafrost, flowing into the Arctic Ocean. Finally, I try to map other metals in the oceans too. Besides iron, there are also extremely small quantities of cadmium, cobalt, nickel or zinc in the oceans. For some of these elements, we do not even know exactly what their role in the ecosystem is.’

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The German ice breaker Polarstern and the US coastguard ice breaker Healy at the North Pole on September 7, 2015 during PE95. Both vessels conducted a GEOTRACES programme and during the meeting an inter-calibration station right at the North Pole was conducted. Foto: Stefan Hendricks, Alfred Wegener Institute.

Research interest and drive

I am a scientist performing fundamental research, interest driven. However, I need to see a cause for my research. This cause is most often to understand part of the ocean ecosystem. As an illustration: Iron is an interesting element since it has a complex chemistry in seawater, depending on pH, oxygen and organic content of seawater. However, for me inspiring is that this element is essential for growth of phytoplankton and limits this growth in large parts of the oceans near the surface.
I study metals in seawater, with the main focus on iron and specifically the chemical forms of iron in seawater. These chemical forms define the residence time of iron in seawater and its bio-availability.

Cruises from 2011 onwards

-    GEOTRACES N Atlantic leg3, Punta Arenas-Las Palmas; RRS James Cook, 2/3-6/4 2011
-    GEOTRACES Zwarte Zee, 64PE373; 13/07/2013 Istanbul-25/07/2013 Istanbul
-    GEOTRACES Middellandse Zee, 64PE374; 25/07/2013 Istanbul-11-08-2013 Lisbon
-    Phantastic Ross Sea, N Palmer; 18-12-2013 Punta Arenas-23-01-2014 Hobart
-    GEOTRACES Polarstern 94, Arctic. 17-8-2015 Tromsö- 15-10-2015 Bremerhaven
-    STRATIPHYT-17, Pelagia; 19-7-2017 Texel-18-8-2017 Tenerife.

The second GEOTRACES Intermediate Data Product (IDP2017) was successfully released on 16 August 2017 at the Goldschmidt 2017 Conference in Paris. Download their brochure here.

Ultraclean water sampler

View the underwater operation of the NIOZ PRISTINE Ultra-clean water sampler for the determination of low concentrations of trace metals in the open ocean waters.

To prevent contamination during sampling, 24 “PRISTINE” bottles each with a volume of 24.4 L, made of a high-purity polymer Polyvinylidene  Fluoride (PVDF) are mounted on an all-titanium frame. To open and close the bottles use a butterfly valve system allowing a large opening at the top and bottom. Before deployment bottles remain always closed when onboard and only open after deployment at 25 m depth, preventing contamination from the ship. This sampler is an example of the co-operation at NIOZ between scientists and technicians as illustrated in the author list of the paper describing the functioning of the ultra-clean sampler:

Rijkenberg, M.J.A.,  H.J.W. de Baar, K. Bakker, L.J.A. Gerringa, E. Keijzer, M. Laan, P. Laan, R. Middag, S. Ober, J. van Ooijen, S. Ossebaar, E.M .van Weerlee, M.G. Smit, 2015: “PRISTINE”, a new high volume sampler for ultraclean sampling of trace metals and isotopes  Mar Chem., 177: 501-509.

Linked news

Tuesday 31 August 2021
Large difference in role of iron between oceans near Greenland and Antarctica
Though a lack of iron is a factor limiting algal growth in the oceans, more dissolved iron in the ocean East of Greenland due to the melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet does not lead to more algae there. Off the coast of Antarctica, on the other hand,…
Wednesday 08 April 2020
A rapidly changing Arctic: Shelf sediments, freshwater runoff from rivers brings more carbon, nutrients to North Pole
A new study by researchers at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) and their international colleagues, among which several NIOZ researchers, found that freshwater runoff from rivers and continental shelf sediments are bringing significant…

Linked blogs

Monday 11 February 2019
Antarctic expedition FePhyrus II
Wat hebben ijzer en virus-infecties in Antarctica met elkaar te maken? We zijn op expeditie in de Zuidelijke Oceaan en de Weddellzee om dit uit te zoeken. Volg onze avonturen in de winter van 2018/2019 via deze blog! ~~~~ English version below ~~~~
Wednesday 21 February 2018
Antarctic expedition FePhyrus
Wat hebben ijzer en virus-infecties in Antarctica met elkaar te maken? We zijn op expeditie in de kustgebieden van West-Antarctica om dit uit te zoeken. Volg onze avonturen in de winter van 2017/2018 via deze blog! ~~~~ English version…
Friday 18 August 2017
Expedition STRATIPHYT-17
An ad-hoc cruise where an interdisciplinary team will build on earlier obtained knowledge during the STRATIPHYT project, but where we will also investigate new ideas, and collect samples for others that cannot join the cruise. The team consists of 3…

NIOZ publications

  • 2021
    Ardiningsih, I.; Seyitmuhammedov, K.; Sander, S.G.; Stirling, C.H.; Reichart, G.-J.; Arrigo, K.R.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; Middag, R. (2021). Fe-binding organic ligands in coastal and frontal regions of the western Antarctic Peninsula. Biogeosciences 18(15): 4587-4601.
    Ardiningsih, I.; Zhu, K.; Lodeiro, P.; Gledhill, M.; Reichart, G.-J.; Achterberg, E.P.; Middag, R.; Gerringa, L.J.A. (2021). Iron speciation in Fram Strait and over the northeast Greenland shelf: An inter-comparison study of voltammetric methods. Front. Mar. Sci. 7: 609379.
    Gerringa, L.J.A.; Rijkenberg, M.J.A.; Slagter, H.A.; Laan, P.; Paffrath, R.; Bauch, D.; Rutgers van der Loeff, M.; Middag, R. (2021). Dissolved Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn in the Arctic Ocean. JGR: Oceans In press: e2021JC017323.
    Schine, C.M.S.; Alderkamp, A.-C.; van Dijken, G.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; Sergi, S.; Laan, P.; van Haren, H.; van de Poll, W.H.; Arrigo, K.R. (2021). Massive Southern Ocean phytoplankton bloom fed by iron of possible hydrothermal origin. Nature Comm. 12: 1211.
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    van Haren, H.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; van Manen, M.H.; Middag, R.; Groenewegen, R. (2021). Diapycnal mixing across the photic zone of the NE Atlantic. Ocean Sci. 17: 301-318.
  • 2020
    Ardiningsih, I.; Krisch, S.; Lodeiro, P.; Reichart, G.-J.; Achterberg, E.P.; Gledhill, M.; Middag, R.; Gerringa, L.J.A. (2020). Natural Fe-binding organic ligands in Fram Strait and over the northeast Greenland shelf. Mar. Chem. 224: 103815.
    Charette, M.A.; Kipp, L.E.; Jensen, L.T.; Dabrowski, J.S.; Whitmore, L.M.; Fitzsimmons, J.N.; Williford, T.; Ulfsbo, A.; Jones, E.; Bundy, R.M.; Vivancos, S.M.; Pahnke, K.; John, S.G.; Xiang, Y.; Hatta, M.; Petrova, M.V.; Heimbürger‐Boavida, L.‐E.; Bauch, D.; Newton, R.; Pasqualini, A.; Agather, A.M.; Amon, R.M.W.; Anderson, R.F.; Andersson, P.S.; Benner, R.; Bowman, K.L.; Edwards, R.L.; Gdaniec, S.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; González, A.G.; Granskog, M.; Haley, B.; Hammerschmidt, C.R.; Hansell, D.A.; Henderson, P.B.; Kadko, D.C.; Kaiser, K.; Laan, P.; Lam, P.J.; Lamborg, C.H.; Levier, M.; Li, X.; Margolin, A.R.; Measures, C.; Middag, R.; Millero, F.J.; Moore, W.S.; Paffrath, R.; Planquette, H.; Rabe, B.; Reader, H.; Rember, R.; Rijkenberg, M.J.A.; Roy‐Barman, M.; Rutgers van der Loeff, M.; Saito, M.; Schauer, U.; Schlosser, P.; Sherrell, R.M.; Shiller, A.M.; Slagter, H.; Sonke, J.E.; Stedmon, C.; Woosley, R.J.; Valk, O.; Ooijen, J.; Zhang, R. (2020). The Transpolar Drift as a source of riverine and shelf‐derived trace elements to the central Arctic Ocean. JGR: Oceans 125(5): e2019JC015920.
    Gerringa, L.J.A.; Alderkamp, A.-C.; van Dijken, G.; Laan, P.; Middag, R.; Arrigo, K.R. (2020). Dissolved trace metals in the Ross Sea. Front. Mar. Sci. 7: article 577098.
  • 2019
    Alderkamp, A.C.; van Dijken, G.L.; Lowry, K.E.; Lewis, K.M.; Joy-Warren, H.L.; van de Poll, W.; Laan, P.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; Delmont, T.O.; Jenkins, B.D.; Arrigo, K.R. (2019). Effects of iron and light availability on phytoplankton photosynthetic properties in the Ross Sea. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 621: 33-50.
    Gerringa, L.J.A.; Laan, P.; Arrigo, K.R.; van Dijken, G.L.; Alderkamp, A.-C. (2019). The organic complexation of iron in the Ross sea. Mar. Chem. 215: 103672.
    Laglera, L.M.; Sukekava, C.; Slagter, H.A.; Downes, J.; Aparicio-Gonzalez, A.; Gerringa, L.J.A. (2019). First quantification of the controlling role of humic substances in the transport of iron across the surface of the Arctic Ocean. Environ. Sci. Technol. 53(22): 13136-13145.
    López-Sánchez, D.E.; Cobelo-García, A.; Rijkenberg, M.J.A.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; De Baar, H.J.W. (2019). New insights on the dissolved platinum behavior in the Atlantic Ocean. Chem. Geol. 511: 204-211.
    Slagter, H.A.; Laglera, L.M.; Sukekava, C.; Gerringa, L.J.A. (2019). Fe‐binding organic ligands in the humic‐rich TransPolar Drift in the surface Arctic Ocean using multiple voltammetric methods. JGR: Oceans 124(3): 1491-1508.
  • 2018
    Dulaquais, G.; Waeles, M.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; Middag, R.; Rijkenberg, M.J.A.; Riso, R. (2018). The biogeochemistry of electroactive humic substances and its connection to iron chemistry in the North East Atlantic and the western Mediterranean Sea. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans 123(8): 5481-5499.
    Rijkenberg, M.J.A.; Slagter, H.A.; Rutgers van der Loeff, M.; van Ooijen, J.; Gerringa, L.J.A. (2018). Dissolved Fe in the deep and upper Arctic Ocean with a focus on Fe limitation in the Nansen Basin. Front. Mar. Sci. 5: 88.
    Rosati, G.; Heimbürger, L.E.; Melaku Canu, D.; Lagane, C.; Laffont, L.; Rijkenberg, M.J.A.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; Solidoro, C.; Gencarelli, C.N.; Hedgecock, I.M.; de Baar, H.J.W.; Sonke, J.E. (2018). Mercury in the Black Sea: new insights from measurements and numerical modeling. Global Biogeochem. Cycles 32(4): 529-550.
    Schlitzer,R.; Anderson,R.F.; Dodas,E.M.; Lohan,M.; Geibert,W.; Tagliabue,A.; Bowie,A.; Jeandel,C.; Maldonado,M.T.; Landing,W.M.; Cockwell,D.; Abadie,C.; Abouchami,W.; Achterberg,E.P.; Agather,A.; Aguliar-Islas,A.; van Aken,H.M.; Andersen,M.; Archer,C.; Auro,M.; de Baar,H.J.; Baars,O.; Baker,A.R.; Bakker,K.; Basak,C.; Baskaran,M.; Bates,N.R.; Bauch,D.; van Beek,P.; Behrens,M.K.; Black,E.; Bluhm,K.; Bopp,L.; Bouman,H.; Bowman,K.; Bown,J.; Boyd,P.; Boye,M.; Boyle,E.A.; Branellec,P.; Bridgestock,L.; Brissebrat,G.; Browning,T.; Bruland,K.W.; Brumsack,H.-J.; Brzezinski,M.; Buck,C.S.; Buck,K.N.; Buesseler,K.; Bull,A.; Butler,E.; Cai,P.; Mor,P.C.; Cardinal,D.; Carlson,C.; Carrasco,G.; Casacuberta,N.; Casciotti,K.L.; Castrillejo,M.; Chamizo,E.; Chance,R.; Charette,M.A.; Chaves,J.E.; Cheng,H.; Chever,F.; Christl,M.; Church,T.M.; Closset,I.; Colman,A.; Conway,T.M.; Cossa,D.; Croot,P.; Cullen,J.T.; Cutter,G.A.; Daniels,C.; Dehairs,F.; Deng,F.; Dieu,H.T.; Duggan,B.; Dulaquais,G.; Dumousseaud,C.; Echegoyen-Sanz,Y.; Edwards,R.L.; Ellwood,M.; Fahrbach,E.; Fitzsimmons,J.N.; Russell Flegal,A.; Fleisher,M.Q.; van de Flierdt,T.; Frank,M.; Friedrich,J.; Fripiat,F.; Fröllje,H.; Galer,S.J.G.; Gamo,T.; Ganeshram,R.S.; Garcia-Orellana,J.; Garcia-Solsona,E.; Gault-Ringold,M.; George,E.; Gerringa,L.J.A.; Gilbert,M.; Godoy,J.M.; Goldstein,S.L.; Gonzalez,S.R.; Grissom,K.; Hammerschmidt,C.; Hartman,A.; Hassler,C.S.; Hathorne,E.C.; Hatta,M.; Hawco,N.; Hayes,C.T.; Heimbürger,L.-E.; Helgoe,J.; Heller,M.; Henderson,G.M.; Henderson,P.B.; van Heuven,S.; Ho,P.; Horner,T.J.; Hsieh,Y.-T.; Huang,K.-F.; Humphreys,M.P.; Isshiki,K.; Jacquot,J.E.; Janssen,D.J.; Jenkins,W.J.; John,S.; Jones,E.M.; Jones,J.L.; Kadko,D.C.; Kayser,R.; Kenna,T.C.; Khondoker,R.; Kim,T.; Kipp,L.; Klar,J.K.; Klunder,M.; Kretschmer,S.; Kumamoto,Y.; Laan,P.; Labatut,M.; Lacan,F.; Lam,P.J.; Lambelet,M.; Lamborg,C.H.; Le Moigne,F.A.C.; Le Roy,E.; Lechtenfeld,O.J.; Lee,J.-M.; Lherminier,P.; Little,S.; López-Lora,M.; Lu,Y.; Masque,P.; Mawji,E.; Mcclain,C.R.; Measures,C.; Mehic,S.; Barraqueta,J.-L.M.; van der Merwe,P.; Middag,R.; Mieruch,S.; Milne,A.; Minami,T.; Moffett,J.W.; Moncoiffe,G.; Moore,W.S.; Morris,P.J.; Morton,P.L.; Nakaguchi,Y.; Nakayama,N.; Niedermiller,J.; Nishioka,J.; Nishiuchi,A.; Noble,A.; Obata,H.; Ober,S.; Ohnemus,D.C.; van Ooijen,J.; O'Sullivan,J.; Owens,S.; Pahnke,K.; Paul,M.; Pavia,F.; Pena,L.D.; Peters,B.; Planchon,F.; Planquette,H.; Pradoux,C.; Puigcorbé,V.; Quay,P.; Queroue,F.; Radic,A.; Rauschenberg,S.; Rehkämper,M.; Rember,R.; Remenyi,T.; Resing,J.A.; Rickli,J.; Rigaud,S.; Rijkenberg,M.J.A.; Rintoul,S.; Robinson,L.F.; Roca-Martí,M.; Rodellas,V.; Roeske,T.; Rolison,J.M.; Rosenberg,M.; Roshan,S.; Rutgers van der Loeff,M.M.; Ryabenko,E.; Saito,M.A.; Salt,L.A.; Sanial,V.; Sarthou,G.; Schallenberg,C.; Schauer,U.; Scher,H.; Schlosser,C.; Schnetger,B.; Scott,P.; Sedwick,P.N.; Semiletov,I.; Shelley,R.; Sherrell,R.M.; Shiller,A.M.; Sigman,D.M.; Singh,S.K.; Slagter,H.A.; Slater,E.; Smethie,W.M.; Snaith,H.; Sohrin,Y.; Sohst,B.; Sonke,J.E.; Speich,S.; Steinfeldt,R.; Stewart,G.; Stichel,T.; Stirling,C.H.; Stutsman,J.; Swarr,G.J.; Swift,J.H.; Thomas,A.; Thorne,K.; Till,C.P.; Till,R.; Townsend,A.T.; Townsend,E.; Tuerena,R.; Twining,B.S.; Vance,D.; Velazquez,S.; Venchiarutti,C.; Villa-Alfageme,M.; Vivancos,S.M.; Voelker,A.H.L.; Wake,B.; Warner,M.J.; Watson,R.; van Weerlee,E.; Alexandra Weigand,M.; Weinstein,Y.; Weiss,D.; Wisotzki,A.; Woodward,E.M.S.; Wu,J.; Wu,Y.; Wuttig,K.; Wyatt,N.; Xiang,Y.; Xie,R.C.; Xue,Z.; Yoshikawa,H.; Zhang,J.; Zhang,P.; Zhao,Y.; Zheng,L.; Zheng,X.-Y.; Zieringer,M.; Zimmer,L.A.; Ziveri,P.; Zunino,P.; Zurbrick,C. (2018). The GEOTRACES Intermediate Data Product 2017. Chem. Geol. 493: 210-223.
    Sukekava, C.; Downes, J.; Slagter, H.A.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; Laglera, L.M. (2018). Determination of the contribution of humic substances to iron complexation in seawater by catalytic cathodic stripping voltammetry. Talanta 189: 359-364.
  • 2017
    Gerringa, L.J.A.; Slagter, H.A.; Bown, J.; van Haren, H.; Laan, P. ; De Baar, H.J.W.; Rijkenberg, M.J.A. (2017). Dissolved Fe and Fe-binding organic ligands in the Mediterranean Sea – GEOTRACES G04. Mar. Chem. 194: 100-113.
    Gledhill, M.; Gerringa, L.J.A. (2017). The Effect of Metal Concentration on the Parameters Derived from Complexometric Titrations of Trace Elements in Seawater—A Model Study. Front. Mar. Sci. 4: 254.
    Slagter, H.A.; Reader, H.E.; Rijkenberg, M.J.A.; Rutgers van der Loeff, M.; de Baar, H.J.W.; Gerringa, L.J.A. (2017). Organic Fe speciation in the Eurasian Basins of the Arctic Ocean and its relation to terrestrial DOM. Mar. Chem. 197: 11-25.
  • 2016
    Bridgestock, L.; van de Flierdt, T.; Rehkämper, M.; Paul, P.; Middag, R.; Milne, A.; Lohan, M.C.; Baker, A.; Chance, R.; Khondoker, R.; Strekopytov, S.; Humphreys-Williams, E.; Achterberg, E.P.; Rijkenberg, M.J.A.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; De Baar, H.J.W. (2016). Return of naturally sourced Pb to Atlantic surface waters. Nature Comm. 7(12921): 12 pp.
    Buck, K.N.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; Rijkenberg, M.J.A. (2016). An Intercomparison of Dissolved Iron Speciation at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) Site: Results from GEOTRACES Crossover Station A. Front. Mar. Sci. 3: 262.
    Caprara, S.; Buck, K.N.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; Rijkenberg, M.J.A.; Monticelli, D. (2016). A Compilation of Iron Speciation Data for Open Oceanic Waters. Front. Mar. Sci. 3: 221.
    Gerringa, L.J.A.; Rijkenberg, M.J.A.; Bown, J.; Margolin, A.R.; Laan, P. ; De Baar, H.J.W. (2016). Fe-Binding Dissolved Organic Ligands in the Oxic and Suboxic Waters of the Black Sea. Front. Mar. Sci. 3: 84.
    Lambelet, M.; van de Flierdt, T.; Crocket, K.; Rehkämper, M.; Kreissig, K.; Coles, B.; Rijkenberg, M.J.A.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; de Baar, H.J.W.; Steinfeldt, R. (2016). Neodymium isotopic composition and concentration in the western North Atlantic Ocean: Results from the GEOTRACES GA02 section. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 177: 1-29.
    Margolin, A.R.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; Hansell, D.A.; Rijkenberg, M.J.A. (2016). Net removal of dissolved organic carbon in the anoxic waters of the Black Sea. Mar. Chem. 183: 13-24.
    Slagter, H.A.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; Brussaard, C.P.D. (2016). Phytoplankton Virus Production Negatively Affected by Iron Limitation. Front. Mar. Sci. 3: 156.
  • 2015
    Gerringa, L.J.A.; Laan, P.; van Dijken, G.L.; van Haren, H.; de Baar, H.J.W.; Arrigo, K.R.; Alderkamp, A.-C. (2015). Sources of iron in the Ross Sea Polynya in early summer. Mar. Chem. 177(Part 3): 447–459.
    Gerringa, L.J.A.; Rijkenberg, M.J.; Schoemann, V.; Laan, P.; de Baar, H.J.W. (2015). Organic complexation of iron in the West Atlantic Ocean. Mar. Chem. 177(Part 3): 434-446.
    Gerringa, L.J.A.; Rijkenberg, M.J.A.; Laan, P. ; Timmermans, K.R. (2015). Cycles in the ocean. Mar. Chem. 177(Part 3): 409-410.
    Gledhill, M.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; Laan, P.; Timmermans, K.R. (2015). Heme b quotas are low in Southern Ocean phytoplankton. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 532: 29-40.
    Mawji, E.; Schlitzer, R.; Dodas, E.M.; Abadie, C.; Abouchami, W.; Anderson, R.F.; Baars, O.; Bakker, K.; Baskaran, M.; Bates, N.R.; Bluhm, K.; Bowie, A.; Bown, J.; Boye, M.; Boyle, E.A.; Branellec, P.; Bruland, K.W.; Brzezinski, M.A.; Bucciarelli, E.; Buesseler, K.; Butler, E.; Cai, P.; Cardinal, D.; Casciotti, K.; Chaves, J.; Cheng, H.; Chever, F.; Church, T.M.; Colman, A.S.; Conway, T.M.; Croot, P.L.; Cutter, G.A.; de Baar, H.J.W; de Souza, G.F.; Dehairs, F.; Deng, F.; Dieu, H.T.; Dulaquais, G.; Echegoyen-Sanz, Y.; Lawrence Edwards, R.; Fahrbach, E.; Fitzsimmons, J.; Fleisher, M.; Frank, M.; Friedrich, J.; Fripiat, F.; Galer, S.J.G.; Gamo, T.; Solsona, E.G.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; Godoy, J.M.; Gonzalez, S.; Grossteffan, E.; Hatta, M.; Hayes, C.T.; Heller, M.I.; Henderson, G.; Huang, K.; Jeandel, C.; Jenkins, W.J.; John, S.; Kenna, T.C.; Klunder, M.B.; Kretschmer, S.; Kumamoto, Y.; Laan, P.; Labatut, M.; Lacan, F.; Lam, P.J.; Lannuzel, D.; le Moigne, F.; Lechtenfeld, O.J.; Lohan, M.C.; Lu, Y.; Masqué, P.; McClain, C.R.; Measures, C.; Middag, R.; Moffett, J.; Navidad, A.; Nishioka, J.; Noble, A.; Obata, H.; Ohnemus, D.C.; Owens, S.; Planchon, F.; Pradoux, C.; Puigcorbé, V.; Quay, P.; Radic, A.; Rehkämper, M.; Remenyi, T.; Rijkenberg, M.J.; Rintoul, S.; Robinson, L.F.; Roeske, T.; Rosenberg, M.; van der Loeff, M.R.; Ryabenko, E.; Saito, M.A.; Roshan, S.; Salt, L.; Sarthou, G.; Schauer, U.; Scott, P.; Sedwick, P.N.; Sha, L.; Shiller, A.M.; Sigman, D.M.; Smethie, W.; Smith, G.J.; Sohrin, Y.; Speich, S.; Stichel, T.; Stutsman, J.; Swift, J.H.; Tagliabue, A.; Thomas, A.; Tsunogai, U.; Twining, B.S.; van Aken, H.M.; van Heuven, S.; van Ooijen, J.; van Weerlee, E.M.; Venchiarutti, C.; Voelker, A.H.L.; Wake, B.; Warner, M.J.; Woodward, E.M.S.; Wu, J.; Wyatt, N.; Yoshikawa, H.; Zheng, X.; Xue, Z.; Zieringer, M.; Zimmer, L.A. (2015). The GEOTRACES Intermediate Data Product 2014. Mar. Chem. 177(Part 1): 1-8.
    Middag, R.; van Hulten, M.M.P.; van Aken, H.M.; Rijkenberg, M.J.A.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; Laan, P.; de Baar, H.J.W. (2015). Dissolved aluminium in the ocean conveyor of theWest Atlantic Ocean: Effects of the biological cycle, scavenging, sediment resuspension and hydrography. Mar. Chem. 177(Part 1): 69–86.
    Pižeta, I.; Sander, S.G.; Hudson, R.J.M.; Omanovic, D.; Baars, O.; Barbeau, K.A.; Buck, K.N.; Bundy, R.M.; Carrasco, G.; Croot, P.L.; Garnier, C.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; Gledhill, M.; Hirose, K.; Kondo, Y.; Laglera, L.M.; Nuester, J.; Rijkenberg, M.J.A.; Takeda, S.; Twining, B.S.; Wells, M. (2015). Interpretation of complexometric titration data: An intercomparison of methods for estimating models of trace metal complexation by natural organic ligands. Mar. Chem. 173: 3-24.
    Rijkenberg, M.J.; de Baar, H.J.W.; Bakker, K.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; Keijzer, E.; Laan, M.; Laan, P.; Middag, R.; Ober, S.; van Ooijen, J.; Ossebaar, S.; van Weerlee, E.M.; Smit, M. (2015). “PRISTINE”, a new high volume sampler for ultraclean sampling of trace metals and isotopes. Mar. Chem. 177(Part 3): 501–509.
  • 2014
    Gerringa, L.J.A.; Rijkenberg, M.J.A.; Thuróczy, C.-E.; Maas, L.R.M. (2014). A critical look at the calculation of the binding characteristics and concentration of iron complexing ligands in seawater with suggested improvements. Environ. Chem. 11(2): 114-136.
    Rijkenberg, M.J.A.; Middag, R.; Laan, P.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; van Aken, H.M.; Schoemann, V.; de Jong, J.T.; de Baar, H.J.W. (2014). The Distribution of Dissolved Iron in the West Atlantic Ocean. PLoS One 9(6): e101323 1-14.
  • 2012
    Alderkamp, A.C.; Mills, M.M.; van Dijken, G.L.; Laan, P.; Thuróczy, C.-E.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; de Baar, H.J.W.; Payne, C.D.; Visser, R.J.W.; Buma, A.G.J.; Arrigo, K.R. (2012). Iron from melting glaciers fuels phytoplankton blooms in the Amundsen Sea (Southern Ocean): Phytoplankton characteristics and productivity. Deep-Sea Res., Part 2, Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 71-76: 32-48.
    de Souza, G.F.; Reynolds, B.C.; Rickli, J.; Frank, M.; Saito, M.A.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; Bourdon, B. (2012). Southern Ocean control of silicon stable isotope distribution in the deep Atlantic Ocean. Global Biogeochem. Cycles 26.
    Gerringa, L.J.A.; Alderkamp, A.C.; Laan, P.; Thuróczy, C.E.; de Baar, H.J.W.; Mills, M.M.; van Dijken, G.L.; van Haren, H.; Arrigo, K.R. (2012). Iron from melting glaciers fuels the phytoplankton blooms in Amundsen Sea (Southern Ocean): Iron biogeochemistry. Deep-Sea Res., Part 2, Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 71-76: 16-31.
    Thuróczy, C.E.; Alderkamp, A.C.; Laan, P.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; Mills, M.M.; van Dijken, G.L.; de Baar, H.J.W.; Arrigo, K.R. (2012). Key role of organic complexation of iron in sustaining phytoplankton blooms in the Pine Island and Amundsen Polynyas (Southern Ocean). Deep-Sea Res., Part 2, Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 71-76: 49-60.
    van Haren, H.; Gostiaux, L.; Laan, M.; van Haren, M.; van Haren, E.; Gerringa, L.J.A. (2012). Internal Wave Turbulence Near a Texel Beach. PLoS One 7(3): e32535.
  • 2011
    Thuróczy, C.-E.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; Klunder, M.; Laan, P.; Le Guitton, M.; de Baar, H.J.W. (2011). Distinct trends in the speciation of iron between the shallow shelf seas and the deep basins of the Arctic Ocean. J. Geophys. Res. 116.
    Thuróczy, C.E.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; Klunder, M.B.; Laan, P.; de Baar, H.J.W. (2011). Observation of consistent trends in the organic complexation of dissolved iron in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. Deep-Sea Res., Part 2, Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 58(25-26): 2695-2706.

Linked projects

FePhyrus_Iron limitation and viral lysis, phytoplankton caught between a rock and a hard place
Rob Middag
Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research
Project duration
1 May 2017 - 30 Apr 2021
OFFBOL_The origin and fate of Fe binding organic ligands
Loes Gerringa
Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research
Project duration
1 Jan 2013 - 31 Mar 2017