Inland waters are freshwater hotspots for biodiversity. Occupying just one percent of the planet’s surface, they are home to ten percent of all species. Photo: Loreta Cornacchia
Huge implications for water management

‘The implications for water management are huge’, says Cornacchia. The current strategy of plant removal does not only threaten a naturally balanced water level, it also threatens a stream’s biodiversity. Inland waters are freshwater hotspots for biodiversity and vegetation is its guardian. It provides habitats and food for invertebrate and fish, helps stabilize the river banks, and removes excess nutrients from the water.

Biology not physical forcing determines water flow

Surprisingly, during extensive empirical research and sampling at two stream sites in the United Kingdom, the researchers observed that plant cover adjustments led to a more constant water level and flow regime. Cornacchia: ‘We actually observed that the plants determined the water flow, rather than the other way around. In this way, submerged aquatic vegetation in rivers ensures that organisms that depend on the aquatic environment to persist can remain in the stream year-round.’ 

Aquatic plants adjust the cover as discharge changes and maintain a relatively constant water level and flow velocity. Photo: Sofia Licci

At high flows, the vegetation is pushed to the side or even dislodged, keeping an open lane in the middle for high-flow traffic. During periods of low flows, aquatic plants gradually clog up the stream, and thereby prevent the water from draining quickly. This so-called self-organization process counteracts the variation in waterflow that streams experience through the seasons.

Changes in climate and land use

Geraldene Wharton, Professor at Queen Mary University of London in the UK and co-author of the study, adds: ‘There are a range of hydrological impacts on rivers linked to changes in climate and land use. Some rivers may experience increases in flood magnitudes and flood frequencies but there may also be increases in low flow conditions - more hydrological extremes.  Our research shows the important buffering capacity of instream vegetation against both low flows and high flows which also maintains healthy ecosystems: a nature-based solution to flow regulation.’

During extensive empirical research and sampling at two stream sites, the team observed that the plants determined the water flow. Photo: Loreta Cornacchia
Nature-based approach to control water levels

Cornacchia: ‘Our findings open up the way towards a more nature-based approach to the control of water levels that harnesses natural processes rather than human control to maintain biodiversity hotspots.’ An approach that is especially relevant in the light of a predicted increase in heavy rainfall and drought through climate change. The vegetation’s ability to adapt through self-organization shows great potential to mitigate the effects of both floods and low water levels. Cornacchia: ‘Insight in self-organizing plants and understanding their role in ecosystem resilience is essential in a future governed by global change.’


Cornacchia L, Wharton G, Davies G, Grabowski RC, Temmerman S, van der Wal D, Bouma TJ, Van de Koppel J.

Self-organization of river vegetation leads to emergent buffering of river flows and water levels

Proc. R. Soc. B 20201147 (2020), doi: 10.1098/rspb.2020.1147