Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research

Macrobenthos on and around hard substrata

Hard substrate provided by offshore installations attract epifouling species, reaching appreciable biomasses. These species change local food webs, with ecological implications for their immediate soft bottom surroundings (Klunder et al. 2018). They form important habitats, while altering their direct environment chemically and physically. Data can be used to model marine growth weight, thickness, and genetic connectivity, across the North Sea, providing improved estimates to engineers and modelers. See also: